SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
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Documents Incorporated By Reference
The following document is incorporated by reference in Part III of the Annual Report on Form 10-K to the extent described therein: Proxy statement for the annual meeting of shareholders of Matson, Inc. to be held April 22, 2021.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Annual Report for the Fiscal Year
Ended December 31, 2020
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Matson, Inc., a holding company incorporated in the State of Hawaii, and its subsidiaries (“Matson” or the “Company”), is a leading provider of ocean transportation and logistics services. The Company consists of two segments, Ocean Transportation and Logistics. For financial information by segment for the three years ended December 31, 2020, see Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II below.
Ocean Transportation: Matson’s Ocean Transportation business is conducted through Matson Navigation Company, Inc. (“MatNav”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Matson, Inc. Founded in 1882, MatNav provides a vital lifeline of ocean freight transportation services to the domestic non-contiguous economies of Hawaii, Alaska and Guam, and to other island economies in Micronesia. MatNav also operates two premium, expedited services from China to Long Beach, California, and provides services to Okinawa, Japan and various islands in the South Pacific, and operates an international export service from Dutch Harbor to Asia. In addition, subsidiaries of MatNav provide stevedoring, refrigerated cargo services, inland transportation and other terminal services for MatNav and other ocean carriers on the Hawaiian islands of Oahu, Hawaii, Maui and Kauai, and in the Alaska locations of Anchorage, Kodiak and Dutch Harbor.
Matson has a 35 percent ownership interest in SSA Terminals, LLC, a joint venture between Matson Ventures, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of MatNav, and SSA Ventures, Inc., a subsidiary of Carrix, Inc. (“SSAT”). SSAT currently provides terminal and stevedoring services to various carriers at seven terminal facilities on the U.S. West Coast, including three facilities dedicated for MatNav’s use. Matson records its share of income from SSAT in costs and expenses in the Consolidated Statements of Income and Comprehensive Income, and within the Ocean Transportation segment due to the nature of SSAT’s operations.
Logistics: Matson’s Logistics business is conducted through Matson Logistics, Inc. (“Matson Logistics”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of MatNav. Established in 1987, Matson Logistics is an asset-light business that provides a variety of logistics services to its customers including: (i) multimodal transportation brokerage of domestic and international rail intermodal services, long-haul and regional highway trucking services, specialized hauling, flat-bed and project services, less-than-truckload services, and expedited freight services (collectively, “Transportation Brokerage” services); (ii) less-than-container load (“LCL”) consolidation and freight forwarding services (collectively, “Freight Forwarding” services); (iii) warehousing and distribution services; and (iv) supply chain management, non-vessel operating common carrier (“NVOCC”) freight forwarding and other services.
Our Mission and Vision:
Our mission is to move freight better than anyone. Our vision is to create value for our shareholders by:
|◾||Being our customers’ first choice,|
|◾||Leveraging our core strengths to drive growth and increase profitability,|
|◾||Improving the communities in which we work and live,|
|◾||Being an environmental leader in our industry, and|
|◾||Being a great place to work.|
OCEAN TRANSPORTATION SEGMENT
Ocean Transportation Services:
Matson’s Ocean Transportation segment provides the following services:
Hawaii Service: Matson’s Hawaii service provides ocean carriage (lift-on/lift-off, roll-on/roll-off and conventional services) between the ports of Long Beach and Oakland, California; Tacoma, Washington; and Honolulu, Hawaii. Matson also operates a network of inter-island barges that provide connecting services from its hub at Honolulu to other major Hawaii ports on the islands of Hawaii, Maui and Kauai. Matson is the largest carrier of ocean cargo between the U.S. West Coast and Hawaii.
Westbound cargo carried by Matson to Hawaii includes dry containers of mixed commodities, refrigerated commodities, packaged foods and beverages, retail merchandise, building materials, automobiles and household goods. Matson’s eastbound cargo from Hawaii includes automobiles, household goods, dry containers of mixed commodities and livestock. The majority of Matson’s Hawaii service revenue is derived from the westbound carriage of containerized freight.
China Service: Matson’s expedited China-Long Beach Express (“CLX”) service is part of an integrated service that carries cargo from Long Beach, California to Honolulu, Hawaii, to Guam, and then to Okinawa, Japan. The vessels continue to Ningbo and Shanghai, China, where they are loaded with cargo to be discharged primarily in Long Beach, California at a Matson-exclusive terminal, operated by SSAT. These vessels also carry cargo destined for Hawaii which originated in Guam, Micronesia, Japan and China. Matson provides container transshipment services from many locations in Asia including Hong Kong and Xiamen, China to the U.S. via the ports of Ningbo and Shanghai, China.
In May 2020, as a result of increased market demand, Matson launched its new China-Long Beach Express Plus (“CLX+”) service. CLX+ vessels operate as a second weekly vessel from China to Long Beach, California, operating back-to-back with the CLX vessels, which together represent Matson’s expedited China service.
Eastbound cargo from China to Long Beach, California consists mainly of garments, e-commerce, consumer electronics, footwear and other merchandise. On our CLX service, westbound cargo to China and other destinations in Asia consists mainly of recycling materials.
Guam Service: Matson’s Guam service provides weekly carriage between the U.S West Coast and Guam, as part of its CLX service. Matson also provides weekly connecting service from Guam to the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Cargo destined to these markets is similar to that described under “Hawaii Service” above.
Japan Service: Matson’s Japan service provides carriage to the port of Naha in Okinawa, Japan, as part of its CLX service. This service carries mainly general sustenance cargo and household goods supporting the U.S. military.
Micronesia Service: Matson’s Micronesia service provides carriage between the U.S. West Coast and the islands of Kwajalein, Ebeye and Majuro in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the islands of Yap, Pohnpei, Chuuk and Kosrae in the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of Palau. Cargo destined for these locations is transshipped through Guam and consists mainly of general sustenance cargo.
Alaska Service: Matson’s Alaska service provides ocean carriage (lift-on/lift-off and conventional services) between the port of Tacoma, Washington, and the ports of Anchorage, Kodiak and Dutch Harbor, Alaska. Matson also provides a barge service between Dutch Harbor and Akutan in Alaska, and transportation services to other locations in Alaska including the Kenai Peninsula, Fairbanks and the North Slope.
Northbound cargo to Alaska consists mainly of dry containers of mixed commodities, refrigerated commodities, packaged foods and beverages, retail merchandise, household goods and automobiles. Southbound cargo from Alaska primarily consists of seafood, household goods and automobiles.
In September 2020, Matson launched its new Alaska-Asia Express (“AAX”) service that provides carriage of dry and frozen seafood from Dutch Harbor, Alaska to Ningbo and Shanghai, China. The AAX service utilizes CLX+ vessels on their westbound trip to China. Matson also provides transshipment services from Ningbo and Shanghai, China to other locations in Asia. Other Alaska cargo may be shipped on the AAX service utilizing Matson’s Alaska vessels and transshipment services in Dutch Harbor.
South Pacific Service: Matson’s New Zealand Express (“NZX”) service provides carriage of general sustenance cargo between Auckland, New Zealand and select islands in the South Pacific, including Fiji (Suva and Lautoka), Samoa (Apia), American Samoa (Pago Pago), the Cook Islands (Rarotonga and Aitutaki), Tonga (Nukualofa and Vava’u), and Niue. Matson’s NZX service also provides transshipment services to the islands of Nauru and the Solomon Islands (Honiara). Additionally, Matson provides slot charter arrangements for the transportation of cargo from major ports on the east coast of Australia to ports in the South Pacific islands. The NZX service also distributes and sells domestic bulk fuel to a variety of these islands.
Matson’s South Pacific Express (“SPX”) service provides carriage of general sustenance cargo from the U.S. West Coast to ports in the South Pacific islands using vessel sharing agreements with other carriers. The SPX service provides direct calls to Tahiti (Papeete), American Samoa (Pago Pago) and Samoa (Apia) in the South Pacific. Cargo destined for other ports including Tonga (Nukualofa) and the Cook Islands (Rarotonga and Aitutaki) is then transshipped in Apia, Samoa to the NZX service for delivery to its final destination. Northbound SPX cargo originating in the South Pacific is transshipped from the NZX service with other carriers to the U.S. West Coast. Cargo destined for Hawaii or Washington is further transshipped in Oakland, California for delivery to its final destination.
Terminal and Other Related Services:
Matson provides stevedoring, refrigerated cargo services, inland transportation, container equipment maintenance and other terminal services (collectively, “terminal services”) at terminals located on the Hawaiian islands of Oahu, Hawaii, Maui and Kauai; and in the Alaska terminal locations of Anchorage, Kodiak and Dutch Harbor.
SSAT currently provides terminal and stevedoring services to various carriers at seven terminal facilities on the U.S. West Coast, including three facilities dedicated for MatNav’s use, in Long Beach and Oakland, California; and in Tacoma, Washington.
Matson utilizes the services of other third-party terminal operators at all of the other ports served by its vessels.
Vessel Management Services:
Matson contracts with the U.S. Department of Transportation to provide vessel management services to manage and maintain three Ready Reserve Force vessels on behalf of the U.S. Department of Transportation Maritime Administration.
Matson’s fleet includes both owned and chartered vessels. Matson’s owned vessels represent an investment of approximately $2.2 billion. The majority of Matson’s owned vessels are U.S. flagged and Jones Act qualified vessels,
and operate in the Hawaii, China, Guam, Japan, Micronesia and Alaska services. Details of Matson’s active and reserve vessels as of December 31, 2020 are as follows:
Usable Cargo Capacity
Name of Vessels
DANIEL K. INOUYE (3)
KAIMANA HILA (3)
R.J. PFEIFFER (3)(8)
MATSON KODIAK (3)(8)
MATSON ANCHORAGE (3)(8)
MATSON TACOMA (3)(8)
ISLAND CHIEF (5)
PAPA MAU (5)
CO OSAKA (5)(9)
NAVIOS FELICITAS (5)(9)
NAVIOS AMARANTH (5)(9)
NAVIOS VERANO (5)(9)
CAPT. THANASIS (5)(9)
BOMAR BELLINI (5)(9)
LILOA II (5)
MAUNA LOA (3)
ILIULIUK BAY (3)(6)
|(1)||Twenty-foot Equivalent Units (“TEU”) is a standard measure of cargo volume correlated to a standard 20-foot dry cargo container.|
|(2)||Vessel Design Speed may vary from the operating speed of the vessel.|
|(3)||U.S. flagged and Jones Act qualified vessel or barge.|
|(4)||U.S. flagged vessel.|
|(5)||Foreign flagged vessel.|
|(6)||Lift-on/lift-off barge equipped with a crane.|
|(8)||Vessel installed with exhaust gas cleaning systems (commonly referred to as “scrubbers”).|
|(9)||Vessels used in the CLX+ service are chartered and may be replaced by other similar vessels.|
Fleet Renewal Program:
Matson has completed its investment of $1,024 million in the construction of four new vessels, including owner’s items and capitalized interest. The two Aloha Class containerships, Daniel K. Inouye and Kaimana Hila, commenced active service in November 2018 and April 2019, respectively. The two Kanaloa Class combination container and roll-on/roll-off vessels, Lurline and Matsonia commenced active service in January 2020 and December 2020, respectively.
Vessel Emission Regulations:
Being a leader in environmental stewardship is one of Matson’s core values. Matson’s vessels transit through some of the most environmentally sensitive areas in the United States including the Hawaiian Islands and the coasts of California, Oregon, Washington and Alaska. Matson is focused in particular on reducing transportation emissions, including carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, particulate matter and sulfur dioxide through improvements in vessel fuel consumption and the development of more fuel-efficient transportation solutions. Matson further contributes positively to the environment by testing and deploying leading technologies as the fleet is modernized.
The International Maritime Organization (“IMO”), to which the U.S. and over 100 other countries are signatories, is a specialized agency of the United Nations that sets international environmental standards applicable to vessels operating under the flag of any signatory country. Effective January 1, 2020, the IMO imposed regulations that generally require all vessels to burn fuel oil with a maximum sulfur content of ≤0.5 percent (“IMO 2020”). There are three main options for a vessel to meet the IMO 2020 requirements: (1) burn low sulfur fuel oil (“LSFO”), (2) install exhaust gas cleaning systems (commonly referred to as “scrubbers”) on vessels to reduce sulfur emissions from high sulfur fuel oil (“HSFO”), or (3) switch to lower emission fuels such as liquefied natural gas (“LNG”), which requires converting existing vessels or constructing new vessels with LNG-compatible engines and fuel tanks. With respect to North America, all waters, with certain limited exceptions, within 200 nautical miles of U.S. and Canadian coastlines have been designated emission control areas (“ECAs”). Since January 1, 2015, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations have reduced the fuel oil maximum sulfur content in designated ECAs to ≤0.1 percent or the equivalent emissions by the use of scrubbers. In addition, since August 1, 2012, the California Air Resource Board and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the Vessel General Permit regulations have reduced the fuel oil maximum sulfur content to ≤0.1 percent within 24 miles of the California coastline and within Puget Sound.
All of Matson’s vessels in the Alaska and Hawaii services are operating in compliance with IMO 2020 and ECA regulations as applicable, and can use LSFO. In the Alaska and Hawaii services, Matson installed scrubbers on nine diesel-powered vessels to allow them to use HSFO and still comply with IMO 2020 and ECA regulations. Matson also maintains two reserve vessels which may operate as dry-dock relief or for emergency activation purposes under an approved ECA permit enabling the use of fuel oil with a maximum sulfur content of ≤0.5 percent within the North America ECA. Matson’s new Aloha and Kanaloa Class vessels burn compliant LSFO. These new vessels are also equipped with dual-fuel engines and can be converted to run on LNG. All of Matson’s other vessels use LSFO to meet IMO 2020 and ECA emission standards.
Hawaii Terminal Modernization and Expansion Program:
Matson has completed the first phase of modernizing and renovating its terminal facility at Sand Island, Honolulu, Hawaii, an investment of approximately $60 million. In 2020, Matson completed the installation of three new 65 long-ton capacity gantry cranes, upgraded and renovated three existing cranes, demolished four outdated cranes, and installed upgrades to the electrical infrastructure at the terminal. As part of the second phase, Matson expects to install a new redundant main switchgear, complete the augmentation of its existing backup power generators, install new fuel storage tanks and a battery energy storage system, and perform other upgrades at the terminal. Matson expects to begin the second phase during the second half of 2021 and to complete it within two years. The final phase is expected to begin in 2024 as part of a broader terminal expansion and modernization program at the terminal.
Ocean Transportation Equipment:
As a complement to its fleet of vessels, Matson owns a variety of equipment including cranes, terminal equipment, containers and chassis, which represents an investment of approximately $0.6 billion as of December 31, 2020. Matson also leases containers, chassis and other equipment under various operating lease agreements.
Major components of Matson’s Ocean Transportation operating costs are as follows:
Direct Cargo Expense includes terminal handling costs including labor, purchased outside transportation and other related costs.
Vessel Operating Expense includes crew wages and related costs; fuel, pilots, tugs and line related costs; vessel charter expenses; and other vessel operating related expenses. Matson purchases fuel oil, lubricants and gasoline for its operations and also pays fuel-related surcharges to other third party transportation providers.
Operating Overhead includes equipment repair costs, equipment lease and repositioning expenses, vessel repair and maintenance costs, depreciation and dry-docking amortization, insurance, port engineers and other maintenance costs, and other vessel and shoreside related overhead.
The following is a summary of major competitors in Matson’s Ocean Transportation segment:
Hawaii Service: Matson’s Hawaii service has one major U.S. flagged Jones Act competitor, Pasha Hawaii (“Pasha”), which operates container and roll-on/roll-off services between the ports of Long Beach, Oakland and San Diego, California to Hawaii. A U.S. flagged Jones Act barge operator, Aloha Marine Lines, also offers barge service between the Pacific Northwest and Hawaii.
Foreign-flagged vessels carrying cargo to Hawaii from non-U.S. locations also provide alternatives for companies shipping to Hawaii. Other competitors in the Hawaii service include proprietary operators and contract carriers of bulk cargo. Airfreight competition for time-sensitive cargo exists; however, cargo volume has been limited primarily due to the cost of airfreight transportation.
Matson operates three strings of vessels to Hawaii. These strings provide customers an industry-leading five departures from ports on the U.S. West Coast to Hawaii every week – two each from Long Beach and Oakland, California and one from Tacoma, Washington. Each of these strings operates on a fixed day-of-the-week schedule. One of the vessel strings continues from Honolulu on to Guam, Japan and China before returning to Long Beach. The remaining two strings offer eastbound Hawaii shippers twice weekly departures from Honolulu to the U.S. Mainland, providing customers service to the same three U.S. West Coast ports. Matson’s frequent sailings and punctuality permit customers to reduce inventory carrying costs. Matson also competes by offering the most comprehensive service to customers, including: the only container service to and from the three largest U.S. West Coast ports; the most efficient terminal network on the U.S. West Coast provided by SSAT; a dedicated inter-island barge network which is integrated with Matson’s line haul schedule; weekly roll-on roll-off service from Long Beach and Oakland; a world-class customer service team; and efficiency and experience in handling cargo of all types.
Alaska Service: Matson’s Alaska service has one major U.S. flagged Jones Act competitor, Totem Ocean Trailer Express, Inc., which operates a roll-on/roll off service between Tacoma, Washington and Anchorage, Alaska. There are also two U.S. flagged Jones Act barge operators, Alaska Marine Lines, which mainly provides services from Seattle, Washington to the ports of Anchorage and Dutch Harbor, and other locations in Alaska, and Samson Tug & Barge, which mainly serves Western Alaska and other locations. The barge operators have historically shipped lower value commodities that can accommodate a longer transit time, as well as construction materials and other cargo that are not conducive to movement in containers. Foreign-flagged vessels provide alternatives for companies shipping cargo (mainly seafood) from the Alaska ports of Kodiak and Dutch Harbor. Matson’s AAX service has two major competitors, CMA CGM and Maersk Lines, which provide services between Dutch Harbor, Alaska and Asia.
Matson offers customers twice weekly scheduled service from Tacoma, Washington to Anchorage and Kodiak, Alaska and weekly service to Dutch Harbor, Alaska. The Company also provides a barge service between Dutch Harbor and Akutan in Alaska. Matson is the only Jones Act containership operator providing service to Kodiak and Dutch Harbor in Alaska, which are the primary loading ports for southbound seafood. Matson offers dedicated terminal services at the Alaska ports of Anchorage, Kodiak and Dutch Harbor performed by MatNav, and at the port of Tacoma, Washington performed by SSAT.
China Service: Major competitors to Matson’s China service include large international carriers such as ONE (formerly “K” Line, NYK Line and MOL), Maersk, CMA CGM, Evergreen, COSCO, and ZIM.
Matson’s China service competes by offering fast and reliable service from the ports of Ningbo and Shanghai in China to Long Beach, California, and providing fixed day arrivals and next-day cargo availability. Matson’s service is further differentiated by SSAT’s best-in-class stevedoring services, access to Shippers Transport Express and off-dock container
yards enabling fast truck turn times, Matson-dedicated equipment including chassis to speed cargo availability, one-stop intermodal connections, and providing world-class customer service. Matson has offices located in Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Xiamen, Ningbo and Shanghai, and has contracted with terminal operators in Ningbo and Shanghai.
Guam Service: Matson’s Guam service has one major competitor, APL, which operates a weekly U.S. flagged container feeder service connecting the U.S. West Coast to Guam and Saipan, via transshipments primarily over Busan, South Korea. Waterman operates a roll-on/roll-off service, which periodically calls at Guam. There are also several foreign carriers, including CMA CGM, that call at Guam from foreign origin ports.
Japan Service: Matson’s Japan service competes primarily with APL, which operates a weekly U.S. flagged containership service from the U.S. West Coast to the port of Naha, Okinawa, Japan.
Micronesia and South Pacific Services: Matson’s Micronesia and South Pacific services have competition from a variety of local and international carriers that provide freight services to the area.
Matson serves customers in numerous industries and carries a wide variety of cargo, mitigating its dependence upon any single customer or single type of cargo. In 2020, 2019 and 2018, the Company’s 10 largest Ocean Transportation customers accounted for approximately 22 percent, 23 percent and 24 percent of the Company’s Ocean Transportation revenue, respectively. None of these customers individually account for more than 10 percent of Matson’s Ocean Transportation operating revenues. For additional information on Ocean Transportation revenues for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, see Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II below.
Matson’s Ocean Transportation services typically experience seasonality in volume, generally following a pattern of increasing volumes starting in the second quarter of each year, culminating in a peak season throughout the third quarter, with subsequent decline in demand during the fourth and first quarters. This seasonality trend is amplified in the Alaska service primarily due to winter weather and the timing of southbound seafood trade. As a result, earnings tend to follow a similar pattern, offset by periodic vessel dry-docking and other episodic cost factors, which can lead to earnings variability. In addition, in the China trade, volume is typically driven primarily by U.S. consumer demand for goods during key retail selling seasons. Freight rates are impacted mainly by macro supply and demand variables.
Maritime Laws and the Jones Act:
Maritime Laws: All interstate and intrastate marine commerce within the U.S. falls under the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 (commonly referred to as the Jones Act).
The Jones Act is a long-standing cornerstone of U.S. maritime policy. Under the Jones Act, all vessels transporting cargo between covered U.S. ports must, subject to limited exceptions, be built in the U.S., registered under the U.S. flag, be manned predominantly by U.S. crews, and owned and operated by U.S.-organized companies that are controlled and 75 percent owned by U.S. citizens. U.S. flagged vessels are generally required to be maintained at higher standards than foreign flagged vessels and are subject to rigorous supervision and inspections by, or on behalf of, the U.S. Coast Guard, which requires appropriate certifications and background checks of the crew members. Under Section 27 of the Jones Act, the carriage of cargo between the U.S. West Coast, Hawaii and Alaska on foreign-built or foreign-documented vessels is prohibited.
During the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, approximately 62 percent, 72 percent and 72 percent, respectively, of Matson’s Ocean Transportation revenues came from the Hawaii and Alaska trades that were subject to the Jones Act. Matson’s Hawaii and Alaska trade routes are included within the non-contiguous Jones Act market. The commerce of both Hawaii, as an island economy, and Alaska, due to its geographical location, are dependent on ocean transportation. The Jones Act ensures frequent, reliable, roundtrip service to these locations. Matson’s vessels operating in these trade routes are Jones Act qualified.
Matson is a member of the American Maritime Partnership (“AMP”) which supports the retention of the Jones Act and similar cabotage laws. The Jones Act has broad support from both houses of Congress and the Executive Branch.
Matson believes that the ongoing war on terrorism and geopolitical environment have further solidified political support for U.S. flagged vessels because a vital and dedicated U.S. merchant marine is a cornerstone for a strong homeland defense, as well as a critical source of trained U.S. mariners for wartime support. AMP seeks to inform elected officials and the public about the economic, national security, commercial, safety and environmental benefits of the Jones Act and similar cabotage laws. Repeal of the Jones Act would allow foreign-flagged vessel operators that do not have to abide by all U.S. laws and regulations to sail between U.S. ports in direct competition with Matson and other U.S. domestic operators that must comply with all such laws and regulations.
Other U.S. maritime laws require vessels operating between Guam, a U.S. territory, and U.S. ports to be U.S. flagged and predominantly U.S. crewed, but not U.S. built.
Cabotage laws are not unique to the United States, and similar laws exist around the world in over 90 countries, including regions in which Matson provides ocean transportation services. Any changes in such laws may have an impact on the services provided by Matson in those regions. For a discussion of the risks arising from the Jones Act and other regulations, see Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K.
Rate Regulations and Fuel-Related Surcharges:
Matson is subject to the jurisdiction of the Surface Transportation Board with respect to its domestic ocean rates. A rate in the non-contiguous domestic trade is presumed reasonable and will not be subject to investigation if the aggregate of increases and decreases is not more than 7.5 percent above, or more than 10 percent below, the rate in effect one year before the effective date of the proposed rate, subject to increase or decrease by the percentage change in the U.S. Producer Price Index. Matson generally provides a 30-day notice to customers of any increases in general rates and other charges, and passes along decreases as soon as possible.
Matson’s Ocean Transportation services engaged in U.S.-foreign commerce are subject to the jurisdiction of the Federal Maritime Commission (“FMC”). The FMC is a federal independent regulatory agency that is responsible for the regulation of international ocean-borne transportation to and from the U.S.
Matson applies a fuel-related surcharge rate to its Ocean Transportation customers. Changes in the fuel-related surcharge levels are correlated to market rates for bunker fuel prices along with other factors related to fuel expense recovery.
Other Environmental Regulations:
In addition to the vessel emission regulations discussed above, Matson’s operations are required to comply with other environmental regulations and requirements including the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation & Liability Act of 1980, the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, the Clean Water Act, the Invasive Species Act and the Clean Air Act. Matson is also subject to state regulations affecting terminal and vessel emissions, such as the requirement to shut down vessel auxiliary engines while at berth at California ports and switch to electrical power. The Company actively monitors its operations to address compliance with these and other regulations.
For more information on Matson’s environmental stewardship initiatives, including its environmental goals, see Matson’s Sustainability Report and other information available at www.matson.com/sustainability. The website is provided for convenience only, and the contents of our website do not constitute a part of and are not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K.
Matson Logistics provides the following services:
Transportation Brokerage Services: Matson Logistics provides intermodal rail, highway, and other third-party logistics services for North American customers and international ocean carrier customers, including MatNav. Matson Logistics strives to reduce transportation costs for its customers through volume purchases of rail, motor carrier and ocean
transportation services, augmented by services such as shipment tracking and tracing, and single-vendor invoicing. Matson Logistics operates customer service centers and has sales offices throughout North America.
Freight Forwarding Services: Matson Logistics provides LCL consolidation and freight forwarding services primarily to the Alaska market through its wholly owned subsidiary, Span Intermediate, LLC (“Span Alaska”). Span Alaska’s business aggregates LCL freight at its cross-dock facility in Auburn, Washington for consolidation and shipment to its service center in Anchorage and a network of other facilities in Alaska. Span Alaska also provides trucking services to its Auburn cross-dock facility and from its Alaska based cross-dock facilities to final customer destinations in Alaska.
Warehousing and Distribution Services: Matson Logistics operates two warehouses in Georgia and two warehouses in Northern California providing warehousing, value-added packaging and distribution services.
Supply Chain Management and Other Services: Matson Logistics provides customers with a variety of logistics services including purchase order management, customs brokerage, LCL and full container load NVOCC freight forwarding services. Matson Logistics has supply chain operations in North America, China and other locations.
Matson Logistics’ operating costs primarily consist of the costs of purchased transportation, leases of warehouses, cross-dock and other facility operating costs, salaries and benefits, and other operating overhead.
Matson Logistics competes with hundreds of local, regional, national and international companies that provide transportation and third-party logistics services. The industry is highly fragmented and, therefore, competition varies by geography and areas of service.
Matson Logistics’ transportation brokerage services compete most directly with C.H. Robinson Worldwide, the Hub Group, XPO and other freight brokers and intermodal marketing companies, and asset-invested market leaders such as J.B. Hunt. Competition is differentiated by the depth, scale and scope of customer relationships; vendor relationships and rates; network capacity; real-time visibility into the movement of customers’ goods; and other technology solutions. Additionally, while Matson Logistics primarily provides surface transportation brokerage, it also competes to a lesser degree with other forms of transportation for the movement of cargo.
Matson Logistics’ freight forwarding services compete most directly with a variety of freight forwarding companies that operate within Alaska including Carlile, Lynden, American Fast Freight and Alaska Traffic Company.
Matson Logistics serves customers in numerous industries and geographical locations. In 2020, 2019 and 2018, the Company’s 10 largest logistics customers accounted for approximately 19 percent, 21 percent and 23 percent of Matson Logistics’ revenue, respectively. None of these customers individually accounts for more than 10 percent of Matson Logistics’ operating revenues. For additional information on Logistics revenues for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, see Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II below.
In general, Matson Logistics’ services are not significantly impacted by seasonality factors, with the exception of its freight forwarding service to Alaska which may be affected by winter weather and the seasonal nature of the tourism industry.
|C.||EMPLOYEES AND LABOR RELATIONS|
Human Capital Strategy:
In support of Matson’s vision to be a great place to work for all employees, the Company focuses on a variety of human capital programs that have been developed to attract, retain and motivate its employee workforce. As a company that
operates in various global locations, the Company’s human capital programs are designed to reflect the unique market practices in each geographic location. The Company’s success depends on employing a diverse, talented and engaged workforce that reflects its local communities, supports an environment of high standards and performance, and thrives in the Company’s collaborative and respectful culture.
During 2020, Matson had 4,149 employees worldwide, of which 128 employees were based in international locations and 2,953 employees were covered by collective bargaining agreements with unions. These numbers include seagoing personnel who rotate through billets (as described below) and temporary employees, but do not include employees of SSAT or other non-employee affiliates such as agents and contractors. In prior years, Matson reported the number of regular shoreside employees only and excluded seagoing personnel and temporary employees. The composition of Matson’s workforce by geography is as follows:
Matson’s fleet of active vessels requires 317 billets to operate. Each billet corresponds to a position on a vessel that typically is filled by two or more employees because seagoing personnel rotate between active sea-duty and time ashore. These amounts exclude billets related to Matson’s foreign flagged chartered vessels where the vessel owner is responsible for its seagoing personnel. Matson’s vessel management services also employed personnel in 32 billets to manage three U.S. government vessels.
Diversity, Equity and Inclusion:
For many years, Matson has been committed to improving diversity, providing equal pay for equal work and creating an inclusive culture. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, traditionally the shipping industry's workforce has been predominately represented by white males. While Matson’s workforce is representative of many of the communities where it operates, the Company believes it can do more to change the status quo within the Company and industry.
The composition of Matson’s domestic shoreside workforce by gender and race in 2020 is as follows (data for seagoing personnel is not available to the Company):
The composition of management positions within Matson’s domestic shoreside workforce by gender and race in 2020 is as follows (data for seagoing personnel is not available to the Company):
In 2020, the Company continued to advance many of its diversity, equity and inclusion efforts. This includes continuing its efforts to analyze pay among various employee groups to confirm pay equity across the Company. Externally, the Company is supporting programs intended to help build a diverse talent pool for Matson and its industry. In 2020, the Company committed $100,000 toward creation of new Matson scholarships to be offered in conjunction with
approximately 15 higher education institutions and maritime academies in its communities with the goal of increasing diversity among those pursuing studies in transportation and logistics. Separately, the Company has committed more than $200,000 to expand its paid internship program with the goal of increasing exposure to the Company and industry among a diverse group of students in its various regional locations.
Total Rewards Programs:
Matson provides a highly competitive and balanced total rewards program designed to attract, retain and motivate its employees. While factors such as job, location and business unit ultimately determine which plans an employee may be eligible for participation, the Company’s total rewards offering includes market competitive base salaries, cash and equity incentives, recognition awards, health and welfare benefits, and employee and employer funded retirement plans. The Company believes that management level positions should have a portion of pay aligned with its short- and long-term business objectives. Accordingly, the Company’s total rewards program contains several pay-for-performance components tied to individual, business unit and company performance, as well as Matson stock price performance.
Succession and Career Planning:
Matson’s workforce is characterized by uniquely skilled, long-tenured employees. To create career pathways for future leaders while planning for the loss of retiring employees, the Company takes a proactive approach to succession and career planning. The Company focuses on providing the next generation of promising talent with the tools they need to build their own careers at Matson. In 2019 and 2020, 40 percent and 53 percent of open positions, respectively, were filled through internal promotions. The Company also provided more than 2,250 hours of employee training and development, while giving regular performance reviews to its non-union workforce.
For more information on Matson’s human capital programs, please see our Sustainability Report which is available at www.matson.com/sustainability. This website is provided for convenience only, and the contents of our website do not constitute a part of and are not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K.
Matson’s shoreside and seagoing employees are represented by a variety of unions. As shown in the chart below, union employees comprise 71% of Matson’s global workforce.
Matson has collective bargaining agreements with these unions that expire at various dates in the future. While Matson believes that it will be able to renegotiate these collective bargaining agreements with its various unions as they expire without any significant impact on its operations, no assurance can be given that such agreements will be reached without slow-downs, strikes, lockouts or other disruptions that may adversely impact Matson’s operations. For a discussion of the risks arising from the negotiation of collective bargaining agreements, see Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K.
Additionally, Matson and SSAT are members of the Pacific Maritime Association (“PMA”), which on behalf of its members negotiates collective bargaining agreements with the International Longshore and Warehouse Union (“ILWU”) on the U.S. West Coast. The PMA/ILWU collective bargaining agreements cover substantially all U.S. West Coast longshore labor. In August 2017, the ILWU agreed to extend its contract with the PMA to July 1, 2022.
Multi-employer Pension and Post-retirement Plans:
Matson contributes to a number of multi-employer pension and post-retirement plans. Matson has no present intention of withdrawing from, and does not anticipate the termination of any of the multi-employer pension plans to which it contributes (see Notes 11 and 12 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II below for a discussion of withdrawal liabilities under certain multi-employer pension plans).
Matson makes available, free of charge on or through its Internet website, Matson’s annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 as soon as reasonably practicable after it electronically files such material with, or furnishes them to, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The address of Matson’s Internet website is www.matson.com. This website is provided for convenience only, and the contents of our website do not constitute a part of and are not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K.
The SEC maintains an Internet website that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding Matson and other issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The address of the SEC’s Internet website is www.sec.gov.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
The following material factors, events and uncertainties may make an investment in the Company speculative or risky and should be reviewed carefully. The Company’s business faces the material risks set forth below; however, these risk factors do not identify all risks the Company faces, and additional risks or uncertainties that are currently unknown or are not currently believed to be material may occur or become material. The occurrence of these or the events and uncertainties described below may, in ways the Company may not be able to accurately predict, recognize, or control, adversely affect the Company’s business, financial condition, operating results, cash flows, liquidity, demand, revenue, growth, prospects, reputation, or stock price. All forward-looking statements made by the Company or on the Company’s behalf are qualified by the risks described below.
Risks Related to the Jones Act
Repeal, substantial amendment, or waiver of the Jones Act or its application would have an adverse effect on the Company’s business.
The Merchant Marine Act of 1920 (commonly referred to as the Jones Act) regulates all interstate and intrastate marine commerce within the U.S. If the Jones Act was to be repealed, substantially amended, or waived and, as a consequence, competitors were to enter the Hawaii or Alaska markets with lower operating costs by utilizing their ability to acquire and operate foreign-flagged and foreign-built vessels and/or being exempt from other U.S. regulations, the Company’s business would be adversely affected. In addition, the Company’s position as a U.S. citizen operator of Jones Act vessels would be negatively impacted if periodic efforts and attempts by foreign interests to circumvent certain aspects of the Jones Act were ever successful. If maritime cabotage services were included in the General Agreement on Trade in Services, the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement, the U.S.-EU Trade Agreement or other international trade agreements, or if the restrictions contained in the Jones Act were otherwise altered, the shipping of cargo between covered U.S. ports could be opened to foreign-flagged or foreign-built vessels and could have other adverse impacts. In the past, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom has suggested that the Jones Act should be a topic of trade negotiations between the U.S. and European Union.
The Company’s business would be adversely affected if the Company were determined not to be a U.S. citizen under the Jones Act.
Certain provisions of the Company’s articles of incorporation protect the Company’s ability to maintain its status as a U.S. citizen under the Jones Act. If non-U.S. citizens were able to defeat such articles of incorporation restrictions and own in the aggregate more than 25 percent of the Company’s common stock, the Company would no longer be considered as a U.S. citizen under the Jones Act. Such an event could result in the Company’s ineligibility to engage in coastwise trade and the imposition of substantial penalties against it, including seizure or forfeiture of its vessels.
Risks Related to the Company’s Operations
The Company’s results of operations have been adversely affected and could in the future be materially adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and its related economic effects.
The COVID-19 pandemic has harmed the U.S. and global economies, shut down or limited many business operations and disrupted manufacturing, supply chains, travel, drayage of containers, and transportation of goods. In the United States and in many other countries worldwide, public health officials and state and local governments have recommended or mandated precautions to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. The full impact of such disruptions on the Company’s business remains uncertain.
The pandemic has severely reduced tourism and is expected to continue to limit tourism in the markets the Company serves, including Hawaii, Guam and Alaska, and has led to reduced demand for freight that the Company would otherwise carry. In addition, the global macroeconomic effects of the pandemic and related impacts on the Company’s customers’ business operations, including financial difficulties or bankruptcies, may persist for an indefinite period, even after the pandemic has subsided.
In the Company’s China service, as a result of the pandemic, the Company has experienced increased demand for its expedited ocean services; however, as the pandemic subsides and supply and demand trends normalize, it is uncertain whether the high volumes and rates the Company has seen can be maintained in the future. In addition, the high volumes of freight from China have contributed to an industry-wide shortage of containers and chassis and congestion at U.S. West Coast ports. There have also been labor shortages at U.S. ports related to record cargo volume and outbreaks of COVID-19. If the Company cannot secure sufficient equipment or unload vessels on a timely basis to meet customer’ needs and schedules, customers may seek to have their transportation and logistics needs met by others on a temporary or permanent basis.
The Company’s operations have also been impacted. The Company’s employees are also restricted in their ability to travel. The Company may be further impacted if its employees are otherwise unable to perform their duties, including mariners aboard our vessels, or if the Company’s terminals are temporarily closed due to a COVID-19 outbreak. Some vessel dry-dockings could also be delayed or become more expensive if shipyards are unable to accommodate demand or obtain parts or if necessary personnel are not allowed to travel to the shipyards.
Due to the continuing uncertainty around the duration, breadth and severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, including the potential for resurgences or mutations of the virus, the actions taken to contain the virus or treat its impact, including the availability, distribution, efficacy and public acceptance of vaccines, and the impact of economic stimulus measures, the ultimate impact on the Company’s business, financial condition, operating results or cash flows cannot be reasonably estimated at this time. Additional or unforeseen effects from the COVID-19 pandemic may give rise to additional risks or instigate or amplify the other risks described throughout these Risk Factors.
Changes in economic conditions or governmental policies have resulted in a decrease in consumer confidence and market demand for the Company’s services and products in certain markets and have adversely affected the Company’s financial position, results of operations, liquidity, or cash flows.
Within the U.S., a weakening of economic drivers in Hawaii and Alaska, which include tourism, military spending, construction starts, personal income growth and employment, the weakening of consumer confidence, market demand, and the economy in the U.S. Mainland, and the effect of a change in the strength of the U.S. dollar against other foreign currencies, have reduced the demand for goods, adversely affecting inland and ocean transportation volumes or rates. For example, the uncertainties regarding the COVID-19 pandemic and other restrictions have severely decreased tourism, weakened consumer demand in certain segments, increased unemployment, and contributed to an economic downturn in the U.S., impacting freight volumes and revenues. The decline in the price of oil due to the oil trade wars and reduced demand from the decline in air or car travel in response to COVID-19 will further impact the Alaska economy, which in turn could impact the Company’s business. In addition, overcapacity in the global or transpacific ocean transportation markets, a change in the cost of goods or currency exchange rates, imposition of tariffs and uncertainties regarding tariff rates, or a change in international trade policies could adversely affect freight volumes and rates in the Company’s China service.
The shipping industry is competitive and the Company has been impacted by new or increased competition.
The Company may face new competition by established or start-up shipping operators that enter the Company’s markets. The shipping industry is competitive with limited barriers to entry as ocean carriers can shift vessels in and out of tradelanes or charter vessels to manage capacity and meet customer demands. For example, in May 2020, the Company’s major competitor in the China service upsized its expedited service from China to the U.S. West Coast. The entry of a new competitor or the addition of new vessels or capacity by existing competition on any of the Company’s routes could result in a significant increase in available shipping capacity that could have an adverse effect on the Company’s volumes and rates.
The loss of or damage to key customer or agent relationships may adversely affect the Company’s business.
The Company’s businesses are dependent on their relationships with customers and agents, and derive a significant portion of their revenues from the Company’s largest customers. The Company’s business relies on its relationships with the U.S. military, freight forwarders, large retailers and consumer goods and automobile manufacturers, as well as other larger customers. For more information regarding the Company’s significant customers, see the discussion in Part I, Item 1 of this Annual Report.
The Company could also be adversely affected by any changes in the services, or changes to the costs of services, provided by third party vendors such as railroads, terminals, agents and shipping companies, including charter vessel owners. Service structures and relationships with these parties are important in the Company’s intermodal business, as well as in the China, Guam, Micronesia, Japan, Alaska export and South Pacific services.
The loss of or damage to any of these key relationships may adversely affect the Company’s business and revenue.
The Company is dependent upon key vendors and third-parties for equipment, capacity and services essential to operate its business, and if the Company fails to secure sufficient third-party services, its business could be adversely affected.
The Company’s businesses are dependent upon key vendors who provide rail, truck and ocean transportation services. If the Company cannot secure sufficient transportation equipment, capacity or services from these third-parties at reasonable prices or rates to meet its or its customers’ needs and schedules, customers may seek to have their transportation and logistics needs met by others on a temporary or permanent basis. If this were to occur, the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
An increase in fuel prices, changes in the Company’s ability to collect fuel-related surcharges, and/or the cost or limited availability of required fuels on the U.S. West Coast may adversely affect the Company’s profits.
Fuel is a significant operating expense for the Company’s Ocean Transportation business. The price and supply of fuel are unpredictable and fluctuate based on events beyond the Company’s control. Increases in the price of fuel may adversely affect the Company’s results of operations. Increases in fuel costs also can lead to increases in other expenses, such as energy costs and costs to purchase outside transportation services. In the Company’s Ocean Transportation and Logistics services segments, the Company utilizes fuel-related surcharges, although increases in the fuel-related surcharge may adversely affect the Company’s competitive position and may not correspond exactly with the timing of increases in fuel expense. Changes in the Company’s ability to collect fuel-related surcharges also may adversely affect its results of operations.
Effective January 1, 2020, the IMO imposed a world-wide regulation generally requiring that all ships burn compliant fuel oil with a maximum sulfur content of less than or equal to 0.5 percent. Currently, LSFO is typically priced higher than HSFO due to the need for further oil refinement. In some market instances, the prices between the two products could be inverted. There is no guarantee that the Company’s contracts to secure LSFO on the U.S. West Coast will secure quantities in sufficient amounts and at a reasonable cost. In addition, prolonged use of LSFO on some Matson vessels could degrade engine performance or lead to higher maintenance costs. There may also be delays or other unexpected complications in connection with Matson’s announced plans to install a scrubber on at least one additional vessel. The Company’s ability to recover the higher costs of IMO 2020 compliant fuel through fuel-related surcharges, the availability of LSFO, and the potential impact on vessel performance may adversely affect the Company’s operations, business and profit.
The Company’s operations are susceptible to weather, natural disasters, maritime accidents, spill events and other operating risks.
The Company’s operations are vulnerable to disruption as a result of weather, natural disasters and other climate-driven events, such as bad weather at sea, hurricanes, typhoons, tsunamis, floods and earthquakes, as well as a maritime accident, oil or other spill, or other environmental mishap. Climate change has increased and may continue to increase the frequency, severity and uncertainty of such events. Such events interfere with the Company’s ability to provide on-time scheduled service, resulting in increased expenses and potential loss of business associated with such events. In addition, severe weather and natural disasters can result in interference with the Company’s terminal operations and may cause serious damage to its vessels and cranes. These impacts could be particularly acute in certain ports in Alaska where the Company is dependent on a single crane. The Company’s vessels and their cargoes are also subject to operating risks such as mechanical failure, collisions and human error.
The occurrence of any of these events may result in damage to or loss of vessels, containers, cargo and other equipment, loss of life or physical injury to its employees or people, pollution and suspension of operations. These events can expose the Company to reputational harm and liability for resulting damages and possible penalties that, pursuant to typical maritime industry policies, it must pay and then seek reimbursement from its insurer. Affected vessels may also be removed from service and thus would be unavailable for income-generating activity.
The Company’s casualty and liability insurance policies are generally subject to large retentions and deductibles and may not cover all losses the Company may incur. Some types of losses, such as losses resulting from a port blockage, generally, are not insured. In some cases the Company retains the entire risk of loss because it is not economically prudent to purchase insurance coverage or because of the perceived remoteness of the risk. Other risks are uninsured because insurance coverage may not be commercially available. Finally, the Company retains all risk of loss that exceeds the limits of its insurance.
In addition to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Company faces risks related to actual or threatened health epidemics, pandemics or other major health crises, which could significantly disrupt the Company’s business.
The Company’s business could be impacted adversely by the effects of public health epidemics, pandemics or other major heath crises (which the Company refers to collectively as public health crises). Actual or threatened public health crises may have a number of adverse impacts, including volatility in the global economy, impacts to the Company’s customers’ business operations, reduced tourism in the markets the Company serves, or significant disruptions in ocean-borne transportation of goods, logistics demand and supply chain activity, caused by a variety of factors such as quarantines, factory and office closures, port closures, or other government-imposed restrictions, any of which could adversely impact the Company’s business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
The Company’s significant operating agreements and leases could be replaced on less favorable terms or may not be replaced when they expire.
The significant operating agreements and leases entered into by the Company in its businesses, including those related to terminals, chartered vessels and warehouses as well as those with SSAT, expire at various points in the future and may not be replaced or could be replaced on less favorable terms, thereby adversely affecting the Company’s future financial position, results of operations and cash flows. For example, on November 26, 2018, a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company entered into agreements whereby Maunalei, a U.S. flagged and Jones Act qualified vessel, was sold for $106.0 million and leased back from the buyer under an operating lease agreement. The customary representations, warranties and covenants contained in the agreements do not eliminate the risks that (a) the lessor could lose its Jones Act status, (b) the Company could not replace Maunalei in the event it is no longer Jones Act eligible, or (c) if the repurchase option is elected, the Company would not be able to consummate the repurchase of Maunalei at the end of the lease term.
The Company may face unexpected dry-docking or repair costs for its vessels.
The Company routinely engage shipyards to dry-dock its vessels for regulatory compliance and to provide repair and maintenance. Vessels may also have to be dry-docked or repaired at sea in the event of accidents or other unforeseen damage. Unexpected dry-dockings or repairs could require the Company to activate a reserve vessel, purchase additional fuel and operate a less-efficient, smaller vessel for a period of time. The Company also operates a number of
older active and reserve vessels that may require more frequent and extensive maintenance. The cost of repairs are difficult to predict with certainty and can be substantial. In addition, the time when a vessel is out of service for maintenance is determined by a number of factors, including regulatory deadlines, market conditions, shipyard availability and customer requirements, and accordingly, the length of time that a vessel may be out of service may be longer than anticipated, which could adversely affect the Company’s business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
The Company is involved in a joint venture and is subject to risks associated with joint venture relationships.
The Company is involved in a terminal joint venture with SSAT (and through SSAT, other joint ventures at various U.S. West Coast terminals), and may initiate future joint venture projects. A joint venture involves certain risks for the Company such as:
|●||The Company’s lack of voting control over the joint venture, including the risk that the joint venture takes actions resulting in reputational harm to the Company;|
|●||Misalignment or inconsistency of interests between the Company and the joint venture partner;|
|●||Reliance on the joint venture partner to fund its share of capital or fulfill its other commitments, including the risk that the joint venture partner could become bankrupt; and|
|●||Operating difficulties and financial losses at the joint venture, which may lead to the Company writing down assets or incurring impairment charges.|
In addition, the Company relies on SSAT for its stevedoring services at the ports of Long Beach and Oakland, California and Tacoma, Washington on the U.S. West Coast. The Company could be adversely affected by any changes in the services provided, or to the costs of such services provided by SSAT.
The Company is subject to risks associated with conducting business in foreign shipping markets.
Matson’s China, Alaska export, Micronesia, Japan and South Pacific services are subject to risks associated with conducting business in a foreign shipping market, which include:
|●||Challenges associated with operating in foreign countries and developing relationships with foreign companies, business associates and governments, including as a result of cultural differences;|
|●||Difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations, including dynamic employment and immigration laws;|
|●||The Company’s ability to comply with U.S. and foreign legal and regulatory restrictions, including anti-corruption laws such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act;|
|●||Not having continued access to existing port facilities or feeder vessels;|
|●||The Company’s ability to manage changes in the cost of goods or currency exchange rate fluctuations;|
|●||Political and economic instability; and|
|●||Dynamics involving U.S. trade relations with other countries, including the imposition of or uncertainty associated with the level of tariffs or other governmental actions.|
The Company’s terminals in Hawaii and Alaska require modernization.
The Company has completed the first phase of renovating and modernizing its Sand Island terminal in Honolulu Harbor. Significant additional upgrades and projects remain. The Company has also begun discussions with state and local authorities in Anchorage, Alaska regarding upgrades to those terminal and port facilities. Regulatory, construction or other delays or cost overruns related to the expansion and modernization of the terminals could have an adverse impact on the Company’s business plans, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, the terminal modernization programs may not result in improved operational productivity or generate expected returns.
Heightened security measures, war, actual or threatened terrorist attacks, efforts to combat terrorism and other acts of violence may adversely impact the Company’s operations and profitability.
War, terrorist attacks and other acts of violence may cause consumer confidence and spending to decrease, or may affect the ability or willingness of tourists to travel to Hawaii, Guam or Alaska, thereby adversely affecting those economies and the Company. Additionally, future terrorist attacks could increase volatility in the U.S. and worldwide financial markets. Acts of war or terrorism may be directed at the Company’s shipping operations, or may cause the U.S. government to take control of Matson’s vessels for military operation. Heightened security measures, including customs inspections and related procedures in countries of origin and destination, potentially slow the movement and increase the cost of freight through U.S. or foreign ports, across borders or on U.S. or foreign railroads or highways.
Acquisitions may have an adverse effect on the Company’s business.
The Company’s growth strategy includes expansion through acquisitions, including, for example, the Company’s acquisitions of Horizon Lines, Inc. (“Horizon”) in 2015 and Span Intermediate, LLC (“Span Alaska”) in 2016. There is no assurance that the Company will be successful in identifying, negotiating, or consummating any future acquisitions. Even if suitable candidates are identified, such transactions may result in difficulties in assimilating acquired assets or companies, and may result in the diversion of the Company’s capital and its management attention from other business issues and opportunities. The Company may not be able to integrate companies that it acquires successfully, including their personnel, financial systems, distribution, operations and general operating procedures. The Company may also encounter challenges in achieving appropriate internal control over financial reporting in connection with the integration of an acquired company. The Company may pay a premium for an acquisition, resulting in goodwill that may later be determined to be impaired.
Risks Related to Employees
Work stoppages or other labor disruptions caused by the Company’s unionized workers and other workers or their unions in related industries could adversely affect the Company’s operations.
A significant portion of Matson’s employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements. Furthermore, the Company relies on the services of third-parties, including SSAT, that employ persons covered by collective bargaining agreements. For additional information on collective bargaining agreements with unions, see Item 1.C. Employees and Labor Relations of Part I of this Annual Report.
The Company has been adversely affected by actions taken by employees of the Company or other companies in related industries against efforts by management of the Company or other companies to control labor costs, restrain wage or benefit increases or modify work practices. Strikes and disruptions have occurred as a result of the failure of Matson or other companies in its industry to negotiate collective bargaining agreements with such unions successfully.
In addition, any slow-downs, strikes, lock-outs or other disruptions, including limits on the availability of labor through trade union hiring halls have had and in the future could have an adverse impact on Matson’s or SSAT’s operations.
Loss of the Company’s key personnel or failure to adequately manage human capital could adversely affect its business.
The Company’s future success will depend, in significant part, upon the continued services of its key personnel and skilled employees, including its senior management, as well as key personnel at its joint venture partners. The permanent or temporary loss of the services of key personnel could adversely affect the Company’s future operating results because of such employees’ experience and knowledge of the Company’s business and customer relationships. If key employees depart or are unable to work, the Company may incur significant costs to replace them. Additionally, the Company’s ability to execute its business model could be impaired if it cannot replace such personnel in a timely manner. The Company’s investments in and efforts to manage its human capital, including to maintain a desirable workplace culture, may not be successful in identifying, attracting, developing, motivating, retaining, competing for or replacing qualified personnel. The Company does not maintain key person insurance on any of its key personnel.
Risks Related to Information Technology
If the Company is not able to use the Company’s information technology and communications systems effectively, the Company’s ability to conduct business might be negatively impacted.
The Company is highly dependent on the proper functioning of our information technology systems to enable operations and compete effectively. The Company regularly updates its information technology systems or implements new systems, which could cause substantial business interruption. There is no assurance that the systems upgrades or new systems will meet our current or future business needs, or that they will operate as designed. For example, the Company is in the midst of a multi-year process to implement a new enterprise resource planning, or ERP, system intended to enhance operating efficiencies and provide more effective management of its business operations.
The Company’s information technology systems also rely on third-party service providers for access to the Internet, satellite-based communications systems, the electric grid, database storage facilities and telecommunications providers. The Company has no control over the operations of these third-party service providers. In the past, disruptions in the Company’s third-party service providers have impacted the Company’s operations, including the Company’s ability to book and manage freight, stow vessels, and process customs declarations. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic and in compliance with guidance from public health officials and state and local governments, many of the Company’s employees are working from home or remotely, increasing the Company’s dependence on its information technology systems and third-party providers. If the Company’s information technology and communications systems experience reliability issues, integration or compatibility concerns or if the Company’s third-party providers are unable to perform effectively or experience disruptions or failures, there could be an adverse impact on the availability and functioning of the Company’s information technology and communications systems, which could lead to business disruption or inefficiencies, reputational harm or loss of customers.
The Company’s information technology systems have in the past and may in the future be exposed to cybersecurity risks and other disruptions that could impair the Company’s ability to operate and adversely affect its business.
The shipping industry is a more frequent target of cyber attacks than some other industries because of the essential nature of these services. The Company relies extensively on its information technology systems and third-party service providers in many aspects of its business, including cloud services for accounting, billing, disbursement, cargo booking and tracking, vessel scheduling and stowage, equipment tracking, customer service, banking, payroll and employee communication systems. The Company also collects, stores and transmits sensitive data, including its proprietary business information and that of its customers, and personally identifiable information of its customers and employees. Despite the Company’s continuous efforts to make investments in the Company’s information technology systems and system-wide data security program, the implementation of security measures to protect the Company’s data and infrastructure against breaches and other cyber threats, and the Company’s use of internal processes and controls designed to protect the security and availability of the Company’s systems, the Company has in the past experienced and may in the future experience cybersecurity risks, such as computer viruses, hacking, malware, denial of service attacks, cyber terrorism, circumvention of security systems, malfeasance, breaches due to employee error, natural disasters, telecommunications failure, or other catastrophic events at the Company’s facilities, aboard its vessels or at third-party locations.
Any failure, breach or unauthorized access to the Company’s systems or those of third-parties on which the Company relies could result in the loss of confidential, sensitive or proprietary information, interruptions in its service or production or otherwise impact the Company’s ability to conduct business operations, and could result in potential reductions in revenue and profits, damage to its reputation or liability.
Risks Related to Financial Matters
The Company may be required to record a significant charge to earnings if recorded intangible assets associated with the Span Alaska acquisition become impaired.
The Company recorded significant intangible assets related to goodwill, customer relationships and trade name arising from the Span Alaska acquisition. The Company is required to test goodwill for impairment annually, or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less
than its carrying amount. Factors that could lead to an impairment of goodwill or intangible customer relationships include any significant adverse changes affecting the reporting unit’s financial condition, results of operations, and future cash flows.
A deterioration of the Company’s credit profile, disruptions of the credit markets or higher interest rates could restrict its ability to access the debt capital markets or increase the cost of debt.
Deterioration in the Company’s credit profile may have an adverse effect on the Company’s ability to access the private or public debt markets and also may increase its borrowing costs. If the Company’s credit profile deteriorates significantly, its access to the debt capital markets or its ability to renew its committed lines of credit may become restricted, or the Company may not be able to refinance debt at the same levels or on the same terms. Because the Company relies on its ability to draw on its revolving credit facilities to support its operations when required, any volatility in the credit and financial markets that prevents the Company from accessing funds (for example, a lender that does not fulfill its lending obligation) could have an adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and cash flows. Additionally, the Company’s credit agreements generally include an increase in borrowing rates if the Company’s credit profile deteriorates. Furthermore, the Company incurs interest under its revolving credit facilities based on floating rates. Floating rate debt creates higher debt service requirements if market interest rates increase, as was the case in connection with the U.S. Federal Reserve’s interest rate increases in 2018, which would adversely affect the Company’s cash flow and results of operations. In addition, as the floating rate on certain borrowings under the Company’s revolving credit facility is tied to LIBOR, the uncertainty regarding the future of LIBOR as well as the transition from LIBOR to an alternate benchmark rate or rates could pose funding risks for the Company and adversely affect the Company’s financing costs. Disruptions to the credit markets as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic or other macroeconomic or financial market developments could increase the Company’s cost of capital and limit the Company’s access to capital.
Failure to comply with certain restrictive financial covenants contained in the Company’s credit facilities could preclude the payment of dividends, impose restrictions on the Company’s business segments, capital resources or other activities or otherwise adversely affect the Company.
The Company’s credit facilities contain certain restrictive financial covenants, the most restrictive of which include a maximum ratio of debt to earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”), a minimum ratio of EBITDA to interest expense, certain prohibitions on additional priority debt, certain prohibitions on sale leaseback transactions, and the maintenance of minimum shareholders’ equity. If the Company does not maintain these and other required covenants, and a breach of such covenants is not cured timely or waived by the lenders, resulting in a default, the Company’s access to credit may be limited or terminated, dividends may be suspended, and the lenders could declare any outstanding amounts due and payable. The Company’s continued ability to borrow under its credit facilities is subject to compliance with these financial and other non-financial covenants.
The Company’s effective income tax rate may vary.
Various internal and external factors may have favorable or unfavorable material or immaterial effects on the Company’s effective income tax rate and, therefore, impact the Company’s net income and earnings per share. These factors include, but are not limited to changes in tax rates; changes in tax laws, regulations, and rulings; changes in interpretations of existing tax laws, regulations and rulings; changes in the evaluation of the Company’s ability to realize deferred tax assets, and changes in uncertain tax positions; changes in accounting principles; changes in current pre-tax income as well as changes in forecasted pre-tax income; changes in the level of Capital Construction Fund (“CCF”) deductions, non-deductible expenses, and expenses eligible for tax credits; changes in the mix of earnings among countries with varying tax rates; and acquisitions and changes in the Company’s corporate structure. These factors may result in periodic revisions to the Company’s effective income tax rate, which could affect the Company’s cash flow and results of operations.
Changes in the value of pension assets, or a change in pension law or key assumptions, may adversely affect the Company’s financial performance.
The amount of the Company’s employee pension and post-retirement benefit costs and obligations is calculated on assumptions used in the relevant actuarial calculations. Adverse changes in any of these assumptions due to economic or other factors, changes in discount rates, higher health care costs, or lower actual or expected returns on plan assets, may
adversely affect the Company’s operating results, cash flows, and financial condition. In addition, a change in federal law, including changes to the Employee Retirement Income Security Act or Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation premiums, may adversely affect the Company’s single-employer and multi-employer pension plans and plan funding. These factors, as well as a decline in the fair value of pension plan assets, may put upward pressure on the cost of providing pension and medical benefits and may increase future pension expense and required funding contributions. There can be no assurance that the Company will be successful in limiting future cost and expense increases, and continued upward pressure in costs and expenses could further reduce the profitability of the Company’s businesses.
The Company may have exposure under its multi-employer pension and post-retirement plans in which it participates that extends beyond its funding obligation with respect to the Company’s employees.
The Company contributes to various multi-employer pension plans. In the event of a partial or complete withdrawal by the Company from any plan that is underfunded, the Company would be liable for a proportionate share of such plan’s unfunded vested benefits (see Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report). Based on the limited information available from plan administrators, which the Company cannot independently validate, the Company believes that its portion of the contingent liability in the case of a full withdrawal or termination may be material to its financial position and results of operations. If any other contributing employer withdraws from any plan that is underfunded, and such employer (or any member of its controlled group) cannot satisfy its obligations under the plan at the time of withdrawal, then the Company, along with the other remaining contributing employers, would be liable for its proportionate share of such plan’s unfunded vested benefits. In addition, if any of the multi-employer plans to which the Company contributes fails to satisfy the minimum funding requirements, the Internal Revenue Service will impose certain penalties and taxes on the Company and other contributing employers.
Risks Related to Legal, Regulatory and Compliance Matters
As an ocean transportation and logistics services company, the Company is subject to numerous safety, environmental, and other laws and regulations that impact the Company’s operations, are costly to comply with and expose us to liability.
The Company, including its vessels and terminals, is subject to numerous federal, state and local laws and regulations, including those related to safety, cabotage, equipment standards and government rates. In addition, the Company is subject to environmental laws and regulations, including those relating to air quality initiatives at port locations; air emissions; wastewater discharges; the transportation, handling and disposal of solid and hazardous materials, oil and oil-related products, hazardous substances and wastes; the investigation and remediation of contamination; health, safety and the protection of the environment and natural resources; and climate change, including any regulations, mandates or restrictions related to greenhouse gas emissions, such as a “cap and trade” system of allowances and credits, and energy use. For a discussion of specific laws and regulations, see Part I, Item 1, of this Annual Report. Any changes in applicable laws and regulations, including their enforcement or interpretation, as well as any new laws and regulations that are adopted, including as a result of the recent change in U.S. Presidential Administration, could impose significant additional costs and limitations on the Company’s ability to operate. Such costs may not be recoverable through increased payments from customers.
These laws and regulations require us to obtain certificates of financial responsibility and to adopt procedures for oil and hazardous substance spill prevention, response and clean up, among other requirements impacting the Company’s business. In complying with applicable laws and regulations, the Company has incurred expenses and may incur material future costs and expenses related to vessel and equipment modifications, new equipment, higher-priced fuel, changes in operating practices and procedures, tracking emissions, changing routes, installing scrubbers, adopting or modifying energy sources and undergoing additional oversight inspections, all of which could adversely affect the Company’s business and financial condition. For example, Matson’s vessels operate within emissions control areas, and the Company’s U.S. flagged vessels generally must be maintained “in class” and are subject to periodic inspections by the American Bureau of Shipping or similar classification societies. They also must be periodically inspected by, or on behalf of, the United States Coast Guard. The Company’s vessels’ operating certificates and licenses are renewed periodically during the required annual surveys of the vessels, but there is no assurance that the Company’s programs and policies will be sufficient to have such certificates and licenses renewed. The EPA also requires vessels to obtain coverage under a general permit and to comply with inspection, monitoring, discharge, recordkeeping and reporting requirements.
These laws and regulations provide for substantial fines, as well as criminal and civil penalties, in the event of any violations of, or non-compliance with, their requirements (including any waivers, permits or recordkeeping and other reporting requirements). Any vessel-generated pollution from incidents in U.S. waters within three nautical miles, and in some cases, within the 200-mile exclusive economic zone, for example, could expose us to such fines or penalties.
The Company is subject to, and may in the future be subject to, disputes, legal or other proceedings, and government inquiries or investigations that could have an adverse effect on the Company.
The nature of the Company’s business exposes it to the potential for disputes, legal or other proceedings, and government inquiries or investigations relating to antitrust matters, labor and employment matters, personal injury and property damage, environmental and other matters, as discussed in the other risk factors disclosed in this section or in other Company filings with the SEC. For example, Matson is a common carrier, whose tariffs, rates, rules and practices in dealing with its customers are governed by extensive and complex foreign, federal, state and local regulations, which may be the subject of disputes or administrative or judicial proceedings. If these disputes develop into proceedings, these proceedings, individually or collectively, could involve or result in significant expenditures or losses by the Company, or result in significant changes to Matson’s tariffs, rates, rules and practices in dealing with its customers.
The Company may continue to be exposed to risks and unknown liabilities related to the Horizon acquisition.
The Company acquired Horizon subject to all of the liabilities and obligations of its non-Hawaii business, including any remaining liabilities and obligations associated with its Puerto Rico operations, which Horizon ceased during the first quarter of 2015. The disposition of these liabilities, and any other obligations that are unknown to the Company, including contingent liabilities, could have an adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.
Pasha acquired Horizon’s former Hawaii business immediately before the Company acquired Horizon, and Pasha assumed substantially all liabilities and obligations related to Horizon’s Hawaii business and agreed to perform various covenants. In some cases, however, Horizon, as the original contracting party, may remain primarily responsible for such assumed Hawaii liabilities and obligations. The Company may incur losses related to such assumed Hawaii liabilities and obligations.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
Matson leases terminal facilities including office and storage space. Material terminal facilities, which are used by the Company’s Ocean Transportation segment, include the following locations:
Dutch Harbor, Alaska
Polaris Point, Guam
The Company is currently renewing certain terminal leases which expired during 2020. The Company expects to be able to renew these leases on similar terms to those that existed within the previous lease agreements. The Company’s other primary terminal facilities located at the ports of Oakland and Long Beach, California, and Tacoma, Washington are leased by SSAT.
Other material facilities used in the Company’s operations by both of the Company’s segments include the following:
Other Material Facilities
Description of Facility
Office / Cross-dock
Office / Cross-dock
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
Environmental Matters: The Company’s Ocean Transportation segment has certain risks that could result in expenditures for environmental remediation. The Company believes that based on all information available to it, the Company is currently in compliance, in all material respects, with applicable environmental laws and regulations.
In accordance with SEC rules, with respect to administrative or judicial proceedings involving the environment, the Company has determined that in future filings it will disclose any such proceeding if it reasonably believes such proceeding will result in monetary sanctions, exclusive of interest and costs, at or in excess of $1 million. The Company believes that such threshold is reasonably designed to result in disclosure of environmental proceedings that are material to its business or financial condition.
Other Matters: The Company and its subsidiaries are parties to, or may be contingently liable in connection with, other legal actions arising in the normal course of their businesses, the outcomes of which, in the opinion of management after consultation with counsel, would not have a material effect on the Company’s financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
General Information: Matson’s common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol “MATX”. As of February 19, 2021, there were 2,103 shareholders of record of Matson common stock.
Stockholder Return Performance Graph and Trading Information: The following information in this Item 5 shall not be deemed filed for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, nor shall it be deemed incorporated by reference in any filing under the Securities Act of 1933.
The cumulative total return listed below assumed an initial investment of $100 and reinvestment of dividends at each fiscal end and measures the performance of this investment as of the last trading day in the month of December for each of the five years ended December 31, 2020. The graph is a historical representation of past performance only and is not necessarily indicative of future performance.
$100 invested on December 31, 2015 in stock or index, including reinvestment of dividends.
Trading volume averaged 234,930 shares a day in 2020, compared with 155,804 shares a day in 2019 and 232,289 shares a day in 2018, as reported by the New York Stock Exchange.
Dividends: Dividends declared per share of common stock by the Company for each fiscal quarter during 2019 and 2020 were as follows:
Matson’s Board of Directors also declared a cash dividend of $0.23 per share for the first quarter 2021, payable on March 4, 2021 to shareholders of record on February 11, 2021. Although Matson expects to continue paying quarterly cash dividends on its common stock, the declaration and payment of dividends are subject to the discretion of the Board of Directors and will depend upon Matson’s financial condition, results of operations, cash requirements and other factors deemed relevant by the Board of Directors.
ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The comparative selected financial data of the Company is presented for each of the five years in the period ended December 31, 2020. The information should be read in conjunction with Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” and Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”. All fiscal years include 52 weeks, except for the year ended December 31, 2016 which includes 53 weeks:
(In millions, except per share amounts)
Operating Revenue: (1)
Total Operating Revenue
Operating and Net Income: (1)
Ocean Transportation (2)
Total Operating Income
Other income (expense), net
Income before Income Taxes
Income taxes (3)
Identifiable Assets: (1)(6)
Ocean Transportation (4)
Capital Expenditure: (5)
Total Capital Expenditures
Depreciation and Amortization:
Deferred Dry-docking Amortization — Ocean Transportation
Total Depreciation and Amortization
Earnings Per Share in Net Income:
Cash dividends per share declared
As of December 31:
Total debt obligations — including current portion
Total Shareholders' equity
|(1)||2016 and subsequent selected financial data includes the operation of Span Alaska acquired as of August 4, 2016.|
|(2)||The Ocean Transportation segment includes $26.3 million, $20.8 million, $36.8 million, $28.2 million and $15.8 million of equity in income from the Company’s investment in SSAT, for 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.|
|(3)||Income taxes for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017 include a non-cash income tax (expense)/benefit of $2.9 million, $(2.9) million and $154.0 million, respectively, related to the remeasurement of the Company’s deferred assets and liabilities and other discrete adjustments as a result of applying the Tax Cut and Jobs Act of 2017.|
|(4)||The Ocean Transportation segment includes $48.7 million, $76.2 million, $87.0 million, $93.2 million and $82.4 million related to the Company’s investment in SSAT as of December 31, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.|
|(5)||Excludes expenditures related to Matson’s acquisition of Span Alaska which were classified as payments for acquisitions in Cash Flows used in Investing Activities within the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.|
|(6)||Identifiable assets for 2020 and 2019 includes Operating lease right of use assets resulting from the adoption of the lease accounting standard in 2019.|
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS AND RISK FACTORS
The Company, from time to time, may make or may have made certain forward-looking statements, whether orally or in writing, such as forecasts and projections of the Company’s future performance or statements of management’s plans and objectives. These statements are “forward-looking” statements as that term is defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Such forward-looking statements may be contained in, among other things, SEC filings such as Forms 10-K, 10-Q and 8-K, the Annual Report to Shareholders, press releases made by the Company, the Company’s Internet websites (including websites of its subsidiaries), and oral statements made by the officers of the Company. Except for historical information contained in these written or oral communications, such communications contain forward-looking statements. These include, for example, all references to 2021 or future years. New risk factors emerge from time to time and it is not possible for the Company to predict all such risk factors, nor can it assess the impact of all such risk factors on the Company’s business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. Accordingly, forward-looking statements cannot be relied upon as a guarantee of future results and involve a number of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected in the statements, including but not limited to the factors that are described in Part I, Item 1A under the caption of “Risk Factors” of this Form 10-K, which section is incorporated herein by reference. The Company is not required, and undertakes no obligation, to revise or update forward-looking statements or any factors that may affect actual results, whether as a result of new information, future events, or circumstances occurring after the date of this report.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) is designed to provide a discussion of the Company’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and certain other factors that may affect its future results from the perspective of management. The discussion that follows is intended to provide information that will assist in understanding the changes in the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements from year to year, the primary factors that accounted for those changes, and how certain accounting principles, policies and estimates affect the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements. MD&A is provided as a supplement to, and should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and the accompanying notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II below. Discussion and analysis of the financial condition and results of operations of Matson for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 can be found in Part II, Item 7 of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on February 28, 2020.
MD&A is presented in the following sections:
|◾||Fourth Quarter 2020 Discussion and Update on Business Conditions|
|◾||Consolidated Results of Operations|
|◾||Analysis of Operating Revenue and Income by Segment|
|◾||Liquidity and Capital Resources|
|◾||Contractual Obligations, Commitments, Contingencies and Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements|
|◾||Critical Accounting Estimates|
Fourth Quarter 2020 Discussion and Update on Business Conditions
Ocean Transportation: The Company’s container volume in the Hawaii service in the fourth quarter 2020 was 0.8 percent higher year-over-year primarily due to an additional westbound sailing and higher demand for sustenance and home improvement goods, partially offset by lower tourism activity as a result of the pandemic. The State of Hawaii eased visitor travel restrictions to the islands in October and saw an improvement in the daily passenger counts, but tourism activity remained significantly below the levels achieved in the prior year period. Tourism levels are expected to remain low until the pandemic subsides and to have a meaningfully negative impact on Hawaii’s economy.
In China, the Company’s container volume in the fourth quarter 2020 was 139.1 percent higher year-over-year due to volume from the CLX+ service in addition to higher volume on the CLX service as a result of our increased capacity in the tradelane. Matson continued to realize a rate premium in the fourth quarter 2020 and achieved average freight rates that were higher than in the year ago period. The Company expects elevated consumption of e-commerce and other commodities coupled with other supply and demand factors in the tradelane to largely remain favorable in the first half of 2021 as the pandemic persists. As the pandemic subsides with widespread vaccination, we expect some of the supply and demand factors that we are currently benefitting from to remain and continue to drive demand for our CLX and CLX+ services.
In Guam, the Company’s container volume in the fourth quarter 2020 increased 4.2 percent year-over-year primarily due to higher demand for sustenance and home improvement goods, partially offset by lower tourism activity as a result of the pandemic. In the near-term, we expect depressed tourism levels to have a negative impact on the Guam economy.
In Alaska, the Company’s container volume for the fourth quarter 2020 increased 18.9 percent year-over-year as a result of higher northbound volume primarily due to two additional sailings and higher demand for sustenance and home improvement goods, and modestly higher southbound volume. The Alaska economy continues to be negatively impacted by the economic effects from the COVID-19 pandemic and a low oil price environment. In the near-term, we expect the economy to slowly recover, but remain challenged until the pandemic subsides.
The contribution in the fourth quarter 2020 from the Company’s SSAT joint venture investment was $10.9 million, or $7.9 million higher than the fourth quarter 2019. The increase was driven by higher lift volume.
Logistics: In the fourth quarter 2020, operating income for the Company’s Logistics segment was $9.6 million, or $2.0 million higher compared to the operating income achieved in the fourth quarter 2019. The increase was due primarily to a higher contribution from transportation brokerage as a result of elevated goods consumption and inventory restocking and tight supply and demand fundamentals in our core markets.
CONSOLIDATED RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following analysis of the financial results of operations of Matson for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II below.
Consolidated Results: 2020 compared with 2019:
Years Ended December 31,
(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)
Operating costs and expenses
Other income (expense), net
Income before income taxes
Basic earnings per share
Diluted earnings per share
Fiscal Year: Fiscal years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 include 52 weeks.
Consolidated Operating Revenue for the year ended December 31, 2020 increased $180.2 million, or 8.2 percent, compared to the prior year. The increase was due to an increase in Ocean Transportation revenue of $187.3 million offset by a decrease in Logistics revenue of $7.1 million.
Operating Costs and Expenses for the year ended December 31, 2020 increased $29.0 million, or 1.4 percent, compared to the prior year. The increase was due to an increase in Ocean Transportation operating costs and expenses of $33.3 million which was partially offset by a decrease in Logistics operating costs and expenses of $4.3 million.
Operating Income for the year ended December 31, 2020 increased $151.2 million, or 117.1 percent, compared to the prior year. The increase was due to an increase in Ocean Transportation operating income of $154.0 million which was partially offset by an decrease in Logistics operating income of $2.8 million.
The reasons for changes in operating revenue, operating costs and expenses, and operating income are described below, by business segment, in the Analysis of Operating Revenue and Income by Segment.
Interest Expense was $27.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $22.5 million in the prior year. The increase in interest expense was due to a lower offset amount of capitalized interest associated with new vessel construction, partially offset by a reduction in outstanding debt.
Other Income (Expense), net was $6.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $1.2 million in the prior year, and relates to the amortization of certain components of net periodic benefit costs or gains related to the Company’s pension and post-retirement plans, and interest income received from income tax refunds. The increase in Other income (expense) was due to favorable adjustments reflected in the Company’s pension and post-retirement plan liabilities and higher interest received from income tax refunds during the year ended December 31, 2020.
Income Taxes for the year ended December 31, 2020 were $65.9 million, or 25.4 percent of income before income taxes, compared to $25.1 million, or 23.3 percent of income before income taxes in the prior year. The 2019 income tax rate benefited from a $2.9 million, or 2.7 percent of non-cash benefit included in income tax expense, resulting from applying the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “Tax Act”).
Net Income during the year ended December 31, 2020 increased $110.4 million, or 133.5 percent, compared to the prior year.
ANALYSIS OF OPERATING REVENUE AND INCOME BY SEGMENT
The following analysis of operating revenue and income by segment for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 should be read in conjunction with the Company’s reportable segments information included in Item 6 of Part II and Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II.
Ocean Transportation: 2020 compared with 2019:
Years Ended December 31,
(Dollars in millions)
Ocean Transportation revenue
Operating costs and expenses