SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
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Documents Incorporated By Reference
The following document is incorporated by reference in Part III of the Annual Report on Form 10-K to the extent described therein: Proxy statement for the annual meeting of shareholders of Matson, Inc. to be held April 23, 2020.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Annual Report for the Fiscal Year
Ended December 31, 2019
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Matson, Inc., a holding company incorporated in the State of Hawaii, and its subsidiaries (“Matson” or the “Company”), is a leading provider of ocean transportation and logistics services. The Company consists of two segments, Ocean Transportation and Logistics. For financial information by segment for the three years ended December 31, 2019, see Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II below.
Ocean Transportation: Matson’s Ocean Transportation business is conducted through Matson Navigation Company, Inc. (“MatNav”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Matson, Inc. Founded in 1882, MatNav provides a vital lifeline of ocean freight transportation services to the domestic non-contiguous economies of Hawaii, Alaska and Guam, and to other island economies in Micronesia. MatNav also operates a premium, expedited service from China to Long Beach, California, and provides services to Okinawa, Japan and various islands in the South Pacific. In addition, subsidiaries of MatNav provide container stevedoring, refrigerated cargo services, inland transportation and other terminal services for MatNav and other ocean carriers on the Hawaiian islands of Oahu, Hawaii, Maui and Kauai, and in the Alaska locations of Anchorage, Kodiak and Dutch Harbor.
Matson has a 35 percent ownership interest in SSA Terminals, LLC, a joint venture between Matson Ventures, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of MatNav, and SSA Ventures, Inc., a subsidiary of Carrix, Inc. (“SSAT”). SSAT provides terminal and stevedoring services to various carriers at eight terminal facilities on the U.S. West Coast, including four facilities dedicated for MatNav’s use. Matson records its share of income from SSAT in costs and expenses in the Consolidated Statements of Income and Comprehensive Income, and within the Ocean Transportation segment due to the nature of SSAT’s operations.
Logistics: Matson’s Logistics business is conducted through Matson Logistics, Inc. (“Matson Logistics”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of MatNav. Established in 1987, Matson Logistics is an asset-light business that provides a variety of logistics services to its customers including: (i) multimodal transportation brokerage of domestic and international rail intermodal services, long-haul and regional highway trucking services, specialized hauling, flat-bed and project services, less-than-truckload services, and expedited freight services (collectively, “Transportation Brokerage” services); (ii) less-than-container load (“LCL”) consolidation and freight forwarding services (collectively, “Freight Forwarding” services); (iii) warehousing and distribution services; and (iv) supply chain management, non-vessel operating common carrier (“NVOCC”) freight forwarding and other services.
Our Mission and Vision:
Our mission is to move freight better than anyone. Our vision is to create value for our shareholders by:
|◾||Being our customers’ first choice,|
|◾||Leveraging our core strengths to drive growth and increase profitability,|
|◾||Improving the communities in which we work and live,|
|◾||Being an environmental leader in our industry, and|
|◾||Being a great place to work.|
OCEAN TRANSPORTATION SEGMENT
Ocean Transportation Services:
Matson’s Ocean Transportation segment provides the following services:
Hawaii Service: Matson’s Hawaii service provides ocean carriage (lift-on/lift-off, roll-on/roll-off and conventional services) between the ports of Long Beach and Oakland, California; Seattle, Washington; and Honolulu, Hawaii. Matson also operates a network of inter-island barges that provide connecting services from its hub at Honolulu, Oahu to other major Hawaii ports on the islands of Hawaii, Maui and Kauai. Matson is the largest carrier of ocean cargo between the U.S. West Coast and Hawaii.
Westbound cargo carried by Matson to Hawaii includes dry containers of mixed commodities, refrigerated commodities, packaged foods and beverages, retail merchandise, building materials, automobiles and household goods. Matson’s eastbound cargo from Hawaii includes automobiles, household goods, dry containers of mixed commodities and livestock. The majority of Matson’s Hawaii service revenue is derived from the westbound carriage of containerized freight and automobiles.
China Service: Matson’s expedited China-Long Beach Express (“CLX”) is part of an integrated service that carries cargo from Long Beach, California to Honolulu, Hawaii, to Guam, and then to Okinawa, Japan. The vessels continue to Ningbo and Shanghai, China, where they are loaded with cargo to be discharged primarily in Long Beach, California. These vessels also carry cargo destined for Hawaii which originated in Guam, Micronesia, Japan and China. Matson provides container transshipment services from many locations in Asia including Hong Kong and Xiamen, China to the ports of Ningbo and Shanghai, China.
Eastbound cargo from China to Long Beach, California consists mainly of garments, footwear, e-commerce and other retail merchandise. Westbound cargo to China and other destinations in Asia consists mainly of recycling materials.
Guam Service: Matson’s Guam service provides weekly carriage between the U.S West Coast and Guam, as part of its expedited CLX service. Matson also provides weekly connecting service from Guam to the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Cargo destined to these markets is similar to that described in the “Hawaii Service” section above.
Japan Service: Matson’s Japan service provides carriage to the port of Naha in Okinawa, Japan, as part of its expedited CLX service. This service carries mainly general sustenance cargo and household goods supporting the U.S. military.
Micronesia Service: Matson’s Micronesia service provides carriage between the U.S. West Coast and the islands of Kwajalein, Ebeye and Majuro in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the islands of Yap, Pohnpei, Chuuk and Kosrae in the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of Palau. Cargo destined for these locations is transshipped through Guam and consists mainly of general sustenance cargo.
Alaska Service: Matson’s Alaska service provides ocean carriage (lift-on/lift-off and conventional services) between the port of Tacoma, Washington, and the ports of Anchorage, Kodiak and Dutch Harbor, Alaska. Matson also provides a barge service between Dutch Harbor and Akutan in Alaska, and transportation services to other locations in Alaska including the Kenai Peninsula, Fairbanks and the North Slope.
Northbound cargo to Alaska includes dry containers of mixed commodities, refrigerated commodities, packaged foods and beverages, retail merchandise, household goods and automobiles. Southbound cargo from Alaska primarily consists of seafood, household goods and automobiles.
South Pacific Service: Matson’s New Zealand Express (“NZX”) service provides carriage of general sustenance cargo between Auckland, New Zealand and select islands in the South Pacific, including Fiji (Suva and Lautoka), Samoa (Apia), American Samoa (Pago Pago), the Cook Islands (Rarotonga and Aitutaki), Tonga (Nukualofa and Vava’u), and Niue. Matson’s NZX service also provides transshipment services to the islands of Nauru and the Solomon Islands
(Honiara). Additionally, Matson provides slot charter arrangements for the transportation of cargo from major ports on the east coast of Australia to ports in the South Pacific islands. The NZX service also distributes and sells domestic bulk fuel to a variety of these islands.
Matson’s South Pacific Express (“SPX”) service provides carriage of general sustenance cargo from the U.S. West Coast to ports in the South Pacific islands using vessel sharing agreements with other carriers. The SPX service provides direct calls to Tahiti (Papeete), American Samoa (Pago Pago) and Samoa (Apia) in the South Pacific. Cargo destined for other ports including Tonga (Nukualofa) and the Cook Islands (Rarotonga and Aitutaki) is then transshipped in Apia, Samoa to the NZX service for delivery to its final destination. Northbound SPX cargo originating in the South Pacific is transshipped from the NZX with other carriers to the U.S. West Coast. Cargo destined for Hawaii or Seattle is further transshipped in Oakland, California for delivery to its final destination.
Terminal and Other Related Services:
Matson provides container stevedoring, refrigerated cargo services, inland transportation, container equipment maintenance and other terminal services (collectively, “terminal services”) at terminals located on the Hawaiian islands of Oahu, Hawaii, Maui and Kauai; and in the Alaska terminal locations of Anchorage, Kodiak and Dutch Harbor.
SSAT provides terminal and stevedoring services to various carriers at eight terminal facilities on the U.S. West Coast, including four facilities dedicated for MatNav’s use, in Long Beach and Oakland, California; and in Seattle and Tacoma, Washington.
Matson utilizes the services of other third-party terminal operators at all of the other ports served by its vessels.
Vessel Management Services:
Matson contracts with the U.S. Department of Transportation to provide vessel management services to manage and maintain three Ready Reserve Force vessels on behalf of the U.S. Department of Transportation Maritime Administration.
Matson’s fleet includes both owned and chartered vessels. Matson’s owned vessels represent an investment of approximately $1.7 billion. The majority of Matson’s owned vessels are U.S. flagged and Jones Act qualified vessels, and operate in the Hawaii, China, Guam, Japan, Micronesia and Alaska services. Details of Matson’s active and reserve vessels, and vessel under construction as of December 31, 2019 are as follows:
Usable Cargo Capacity
Name of Vessels (1)
DANIEL K. INOUYE (3)
KAIMANA HILA (3)
R.J. PFEIFFER (3)
MATSON KODIAK (3)
MATSON ANCHORAGE (3)
MATSON TACOMA (3)
IMUA II (5)(10)
LILOA II (5)
PAPA MAU (5)
MAUNA LOA (3)
ILIULIUK BAY (3)(6)
Vessel under Construction
|(1)||Excludes inactive vessels (SS Lihue, SS Kauai and SS Matsonia).|
|(2)||Twenty-foot Equivalent Units (“TEU”) is a standard measure of cargo volume correlated to a standard 20-foot dry cargo container.|
|(3)||U.S. flagged and Jones Act qualified vessel or barge.|
|(4)||U.S. flagged vessel.|
|(5)||Foreign flagged vessel.|
|(6)||Lift-on/lift-off barge equipped with a crane.|
|(8)||Commenced active service in January 2020.|
|(9)||Expected delivery date during the fourth quarter of 2020.|
|(10)||Vessel is sub-chartered to another shipping company commencing January 2020.|
Fleet Renewal Program:
Matson has invested approximately $0.9 billion in the construction of four new vessels. The two Aloha Class containerships, Daniel K. Inouye and Kaimana Hila, commenced active service in November 2018 and April 2019, respectively. The first of two Kanaloa Class combination container and roll-on/roll-off vessels, Lurline, commenced active service in January 2020. Delivery of the second Kanaloa Class vessel, Matsonia, is expected during the fourth quarter of 2020.
With the delivery of Lurline, Matson returned to a nine-ship deployment serving the Hawaii market commencing in early January of 2020.
Vessel Emission Regulations:
Being a leader in environmental stewardship is one of Matson’s core values. Matson vessels transit through some of the most environmentally sensitive areas in the United States including the Hawaiian Islands and the coasts of California, Oregon, Washington and Alaska. Matson is focused in particular on reducing transportation emissions, including carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, particulate matter and sulfur dioxide through improvements in vessel fuel consumption and the development of more fuel-efficient transportation solutions. Matson further contributes positively to the environment by testing and deploying leading technologies as the fleet is modernized.
The International Maritime Organization (“IMO”), to which the U.S. and over 100 other countries are signatories, is a specialized agency of the United Nations that sets international environmental standards applicable to vessels operating under the flag of any signatory country. Effective January 1, 2020, the IMO has imposed regulations that generally require all vessels to burn fuel oil with a maximum sulfur content of ≤0.5 percent (“IMO 2020”). There are three main options for a vessel to meet the new IMO 2020 requirements: (1) burn low sulfur fuel oil (“LSFO”), (2) install exhaust gas cleaning systems (commonly referred to as “scrubbers”) on vessels to purify high sulfur fuel oil (“HSFO”), or (3) switch to lower emission fuels such as liquefied natural gas (“LNG”), which requires converting existing vessels or constructing new vessels with LNG-compatible engines and fuel tanks. With respect to North America, all waters, with certain limited exceptions, within 200 nautical miles of U.S. and Canadian coastlines have been designated emission control areas (“ECAs”). Since January 1, 2015, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations have reduced the fuel oil maximum sulfur content in designated ECAs to ≤0.1 percent.
All of Matson’s vessels in the Alaska and Hawaii services are compliant with IMO 2020 and ECA regulations and can use LSFO. In the Alaska service, Matson has installed scrubbers on its three diesel-powered vessels to allow them to use HSFO and still comply with IMO 2020 and ECA regulations. In the Hawaii service, Matson has announced plans to install scrubbers on six diesel-powered vessels to allow them to use HSFO and comply with IMO 2020 and ECA regulations. Installation of scrubbers on the first two of these vessels was completed during 2019, with the remaining four expected to be completed during 2020. Matson’s new Aloha and Kanaloa Class vessels burn compliant LSFO. These new vessels are also equipped with dual-fuel engines and can be converted to run on LNG. All of Matson’s other vessels will use LSFO to meet IMO 2020 and ECA emission standards.
Hawaii Terminal Expansion and Modernization Program:
During 2020, Matson expects to complete the first phase of renovating its terminal facility at Sand Island, Honolulu, Hawaii. The first phase involves the investment of approximately $60 million and includes the installation of three new 65 long-ton capacity gantry cranes and modifications to upgrade three existing cranes. The first phase also includes upgrades in electrical infrastructure and other modifications to the Sand Island terminal.
Additional phases are expected to be completed from 2021 through 2024 as part of a broader terminal expansion and modernization program at Matson’s Sand Island terminal.
Ocean Transportation Equipment:
As a complement to its fleet of vessels, Matson has a variety of equipment including cranes, containers and chassis which represents an investment of approximately $0.5 billion as of December 31, 2019. Matson also leases containers, chassis and other equipment under various operating lease agreements.
Major components of Matson’s Ocean Transportation operating costs are as follows:
Direct Cargo Expense includes terminal handling costs, purchased outside transportation and other related costs.
Vessel Operating Expense includes crew wages and related costs; fuel consumption, pilot, tugs and line related costs; vessel charter expenses; and other vessel related expenses. Matson purchases fuel oil, lubricants and gasoline for its operations and also pays fuel-related surcharges to other third party transportation providers.
Operating Overhead includes equipment repair costs, equipment operating lease and repositioning expenses, vessel repair and maintenance costs, dry-docking amortization, insurance, port engineers and other maintenance costs, and other vessel and shoreside related overhead.
The following is a summary of major competitors in Matson’s Ocean Transportation segment:
Hawaii Service: Matson’s Hawaii service has one major U.S. flag Jones Act ocean carrier competitor, Pasha Hawaii (“Pasha”), which operates container and roll-on/roll-off services between the ports of Long Beach, Oakland and San Diego, California to Hawaii. There also are two U.S. flag Jones Act barge operators, Aloha Marine Lines and Sause Brothers, which offer barge service between the Pacific Northwest and Hawaii.
Foreign-flag vessels carrying cargo to Hawaii from non-U.S. locations also provide alternatives for companies shipping to Hawaii. Other competitors in the Hawaii service include proprietary operators and contract carriers of bulk cargo. Airfreight competition for time-sensitive cargo exists; however, cargo volume has been limited primarily due to the cost of airfreight transportation.
Matson vessels are operated on schedules that provide customers, shippers and consignees fixed day-of-the-week sailings from the U.S. West Coast as well as fixed day-of-the-week arrivals in Hawaii. Matson offers five westbound departures per week, though this amount may be adjusted according to market conditions. One of Matson’s westbound sailings each week continues from Honolulu on to Guam, Japan and China. Matson offers two weekly eastbound departures from Honolulu to the U.S. Mainland. These sailings call on three U.S. West Coast ports each week. Matson’s frequent sailings permit customers to reduce inventory carrying costs. Matson also competes by offering a more comprehensive service to customers, including: service to and from the three largest U.S. West Coast ports; the most efficient terminal network on the U.S. West Coast provided by SSAT; a dedicated inter-island barge network; a world-class customer service team; and its efficiency and experience in handling cargo of all types.
Alaska Service: Matson’s Alaska service has one major U.S. flag Jones Act competitor, Totem Ocean Trailer Express, Inc., which operates a roll-on/roll off service between Tacoma, Washington and Anchorage, Alaska. There are also two U.S. flag Jones Act barge operators, Alaska Marine Lines, which mainly provides services from Seattle, Washington to the ports of Anchorage and Dutch Harbor, and other locations in Alaska, and Samson Tug & Barge, which mainly serves Western Alaska and other locations. The barge operators have historically shipped lower value commodities that can accommodate a longer transit time, as well as construction materials and other cargo that are not conducive to movement in containers. Foreign-flag vessels provide alternatives for companies shipping cargo (mainly seafood) from the Alaska ports of Kodiak and Dutch Harbor.
Matson offers customers twice weekly scheduled service from Tacoma, Washington to Anchorage and Kodiak, Alaska and weekly service to Dutch Harbor, Alaska. The Company also provides a barge service between Dutch Harbor and Akutan in Alaska. Matson is the only Jones Act containership operator providing service to Kodiak and Dutch Harbor in Alaska, which are the primary loading ports for southbound seafood. Matson offers dedicated terminal services at the Alaska ports of Anchorage, Kodiak and Dutch Harbor performed by MatNav, and at the port of Tacoma, Washington performed by SSAT.
China Service: Major competitors to Matson’s China service include large international carriers such as ONE (formerly “K” Line, NYK Line and MOL), Maersk, CMA CGM and its subsidiary APL, Evergreen, COSCO and SM Line.
Matson competes by offering a fast and reliable service from the ports of Ningbo and Shanghai in China to Long Beach, California, providing fixed day arrivals and next-day cargo availability. Matson’s service is further differentiated by offering a dedicated marine terminal in Long Beach, California operated by SSAT, an off-dock container yard providing fast truck turn times, dedicated chassis, one-stop intermodal connections, and providing world-class customer service.
Matson has offices located in Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Xiamen, Ningbo and Shanghai, and has contracted with terminal operators in Ningbo and Shanghai.
Guam Service: Matson’s Guam service has one major competitor, APL, which operates a weekly U.S. flagged container feeder service connecting the U.S. West Coast to Guam and Saipan, via transshipments over Yokohama, Japan. Waterman operates a roll-on/roll-off service, which periodically calls at Guam. There are also several foreign carriers, including APL, that call at Guam from foreign origin ports.
Japan Service: Matson’s Japan service competes primarily with APL, which operates a weekly U.S. flagged containership service from the U.S. West Coast to the port of Naha, Okinawa, Japan.
Micronesia and South Pacific Services: Matson’s Micronesia and South Pacific services have competition from a variety of local and international carriers that provide freight services to the area.
Matson serves customers in numerous industries and carries a wide variety of cargo, mitigating its dependence upon any single customer or single type of cargo. In 2019, 2018 and 2017, the Company’s 10 largest Ocean Transportation customers accounted for approximately 23 percent, 24 percent and 23 percent of the Company’s Ocean Transportation revenue, respectively. None of these customers individually account for more than 10 percent of Matson’s Ocean Transportation operating revenues. For additional information on Ocean Transportation revenues for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, see Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II below.
Matson’s Ocean Transportation services typically experience seasonality in volume, generally following a pattern of increasing volumes starting in the second quarter of each year, culminating in a peak season throughout the third quarter, with subsequent decline in demand during the fourth and first quarters. This seasonality trend is amplified in the Alaska service primarily due to winter weather and the timing of southbound seafood trade. As a result, earnings tend to follow a similar pattern, offset by periodic vessel dry-docking and other episodic cost factors, which can lead to earnings variability. In addition, in the China trade, volume is driven primarily by U.S. consumer demand for goods during key retail selling seasons while freight rates are impacted mainly by macro supply and demand variables.
Maritime Laws and the Jones Act:
Maritime Laws: All interstate and intrastate marine commerce within the U.S. falls under the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 (commonly referred to as the Jones Act).
The Jones Act is a long-standing cornerstone of U.S. maritime policy. Under the Jones Act, all vessels transporting cargo between covered U.S. ports must, subject to limited exceptions, be built in the U.S., registered under the U.S. flag, be manned predominantly by U.S. crews, and owned and operated by U.S.-organized companies that are controlled and 75 percent owned by U.S. citizens. U.S. flagged vessels are generally required to be maintained at higher standards than foreign flagged vessels and are subject to rigorous supervision and inspections by, or on behalf of, the U.S. Coast Guard, which requires appropriate certifications and background checks of the crew members. Under Section 27 of the Jones Act, the carriage of cargo between the U.S. West Coast, Hawaii and Alaska on foreign-built or foreign-documented vessels is prohibited.
During the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, approximately 72 percent of Matson’s Ocean Transportation revenues came from the Hawaii and Alaska trades that were subject to the Jones Act. Matson’s Hawaii and Alaska trade routes are included within the non-contiguous Jones Act market. Hawaii, as an island economy, and Alaska due to its geographical location, are both dependent on ocean transportation. The Jones Act ensures frequent, reliable, roundtrip service to these locations. Matson’s vessels operating in these trade routes are Jones Act qualified.
Matson is a member of the American Maritime Partnership (“AMP”) which supports the retention of the Jones Act and similar cabotage laws. The Jones Act has broad support from both houses of Congress. Matson believes that the ongoing war on terrorism and geopolitical environment have further solidified political support for U.S. flagged vessels
because a vital and dedicated U.S. merchant marine is a cornerstone for a strong homeland defense, as well as a critical source of trained U.S. mariners for wartime support. AMP seeks to inform elected officials and the public about the economic, national security, commercial, safety and environmental benefits of the Jones Act and similar cabotage laws. Repeal of the Jones Act would allow foreign-flag vessel operators that do not have to abide by all U.S. laws and regulations to sail between U.S. ports in direct competition with Matson and other U.S. domestic operators that must comply with all such laws and regulations.
Other U.S. maritime laws require vessels operating between Guam, a U.S. territory, and U.S. ports to be U.S. flagged and predominantly U.S. crewed, but not U.S. built.
Cabotage laws are not unique to the United States, and similar laws exist around the world in over 90 countries, including regions in which Matson provides ocean transportation services. Any changes in such laws may have an impact on the services provided by Matson in those regions.
Rate Regulations and Fuel-Related Surcharges:
Matson is subject to the jurisdiction of the Surface Transportation Board with respect to its domestic ocean rates. A rate in the non-contiguous domestic trade is presumed reasonable and will not be subject to investigation if the aggregate of increases and decreases is not more than 7.5 percent above, or more than 10 percent below, the rate in effect one year before the effective date of the proposed rate, subject to increase or decrease by the percentage change in the U.S. Producer Price Index. Matson generally provides a 30-day notice to customers of any increases in general rates and other charges, and passes along decreases as soon as possible.
Matson’s Ocean Transportation services engaged in U.S.-foreign commerce are subject to the jurisdiction of the Federal Maritime Commission (“FMC”). The FMC is a federal independent regulatory agency that is responsible for the regulation of international oceanborne transportation to and from the U.S.
Matson applies a fuel-related surcharge rate to its Ocean Transportation customers. Changes in the fuel-related surcharge levels are correlated to market rates for bunker fuel prices along with other factors related to fuel expense recovery.
Other Environmental Regulations:
In addition to the vessel emission regulations discussed above, Matson’s operations are required to comply with other environmental regulations and requirements including the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation & Liability Act of 1980, the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, the Clean Water Act, the Invasive Species Act and the Clean Air Act. The Company actively monitors its operations to ensure compliance with these and other regulations.
For more information on Matson’s environmental stewardship initiatives, including its environmental goals, see https://www.matson.com/corporate/about_us/environmental.html. The contents of our website are not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K.
Matson Logistics provides the following services:
Transportation Brokerage Services: Matson Logistics provides intermodal rail, highway, and other third-party logistics services for North American customers and international ocean carrier customers, including MatNav. Matson Logistics strives to reduce transportation costs for its customers through volume purchases of rail, motor carrier and ocean transportation services, augmented by services such as shipment tracking and tracing, and single-vendor invoicing. Matson Logistics operates customer service centers and has sales offices throughout North America.
Freight Forwarding Services: Matson Logistics provides LCL consolidation and freight forwarding services primarily to the Alaska market through its wholly owned subsidiary, Span Intermediate, LLC (“Span Alaska”). Span Alaska’s business aggregates LCL freight at its cross-dock facility in Auburn, Washington for consolidation and shipment to a network of cross-dock facilities in Alaska. Span Alaska also provides trucking services to its Auburn cross-dock facility and from its Alaska based cross-dock facilities to final customer destinations in Alaska.
Warehousing and Distribution Services: Matson Logistics operates two warehouses in Georgia and two warehouses in Northern California providing warehousing, value-added packaging and distribution services.
Supply Chain Management and Other Services: Matson Logistics provides customers with a variety of logistics services including purchase order management, customs brokerage, LCL and full container load NVOCC freight forwarding services. Matson Logistics operates a customer service center in Shanghai, China to support its supply chain operations in North America, China and other locations.
Investment in Anchorage Service Center:
During the fourth quarter of 2019, Span Alaska completed the construction of a new 54,000 square foot cross-dock facility (“Anchorage Service Center”) to consolidate its Anchorage operations that previously operated from two smaller leased facilities. The Anchorage Service Center is expected to improve Span Alaska’s operating efficiency while providing additional capacity for long-term growth.
Matson Logistics’ operating costs primarily consist of the costs of purchased transportation, leases of warehouses, cross-dock and other facility operating costs, salaries and benefits, and other operating overhead.
Matson Logistics competes with hundreds of local, regional, national and international companies that provide transportation and third-party logistics services. The industry is highly fragmented and, therefore, competition varies by geography and areas of service.
Matson Logistics’ transportation brokerage services competes most directly with C.H. Robinson Worldwide, the Hub Group, XPO and other freight brokers and intermodal marketing companies, and asset-invested market leaders such as J.B. Hunt. Competition is differentiated by the depth, scale and scope of customer relationships; vendor relationships and rates; network capacity; real-time visibility into the movement of customers’ goods; and other technology solutions. Additionally, while Matson Logistics primarily provides surface transportation brokerage, it also competes to a lesser degree with other forms of transportation for the movement of cargo.
Matson Logistics’ freight forwarding services compete most directly with a variety of freight forwarding companies that operate within Alaska including Carlile, Lynden, American Fast Freight and Alaska Traffic Company.
Matson Logistics serves customers in numerous industries and geographical locations. In 2019, 2018 and 2017, the Company’s 10 largest logistics customers accounted for approximately 21 percent, 23 percent and 19 percent of Matson Logistics’ revenue, respectively. None of these customers individually accounts for more than 10 percent of Matson Logistics’ operating revenues. For additional information on Logistics revenues for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, see Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II below.
Matson Logistics’ services are generally not significantly impacted by seasonality factors, except for its freight forwarding service to Alaska which is affected by the winter weather, the cyclical nature of the oil and construction industries, and the seasonal nature of the tourism industry.
|C.||EMPLOYEES AND LABOR RELATIONS|
As of December 31, 2019, Matson and its subsidiaries had 1,988 employees, of which 794 employees were covered by collective bargaining agreements with shoreside unions. These numbers do not include billets on vessels discussed below, employees of SSAT, or other non-employees, such as agents, temporary workers and contractors.
Matson’s fleet of active vessels require 298 billets to operate these vessels. Each billet corresponds to a position on a vessel that typically is filled by two or more employees because seagoing personnel rotate between active sea-duty and time ashore. These amounts exclude billets related to Matson’s foreign flagged chartered vessels where the vessel owner is responsible for its seagoing personnel. Matson’s vessel management services also employed personnel in 28 billets to manage three vessels.
Matson’s shoreside and seagoing employees are represented by a variety of unions. Matson has collective bargaining agreements with these unions that expire at various dates in the future. While Matson believes that it will be able to renegotiate these collective bargaining agreements with its various unions as they expire without any significant impact on its operations, no assurance can be given that such agreements will be reached without slow-downs, strikes, lockouts or other disruptions that may adversely impact Matson’s operations.
Additionally, Matson and SSAT are members of the Pacific Maritime Association (“PMA”), which on behalf of its members negotiates collective bargaining agreements with the International Longshore and Warehouse Union (“ILWU”) on the U.S. West Coast. The PMA/ILWU collective bargaining agreements cover substantially all U.S. West Coast longshore labor. In August 2017, the ILWU agreed to extend its contract with the PMA to July 1, 2022.
Multi-employer Pension and Post-retirement Plans:
Matson contributes to a number of multi-employer pension and post-retirement plans. Matson has no present intention of withdrawing from, and does not anticipate the termination of any of the multi-employer pension plans to which it contributes (see Notes 11 and 12 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II below for a discussion of withdrawal liabilities under certain multi-employer pension plans).
Matson makes available, free of charge on or through its Internet website, Matson’s annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 as soon as reasonably practicable after it electronically files such material with, or furnishes them to, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The address of Matson’s Internet website is www.matson.com. The contents of our website are not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K.
The SEC maintains an Internet website that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding Matson and other issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The address of the SEC’s Internet website is www.sec.gov.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
The Company’s business faces the risks set forth below, which may adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results. All forward-looking statements made by the Company or on the Company’s behalf are qualified by the risks described below.
Risks Related to the Jones Act
Repeal, substantial amendment, or waiver of the Jones Act or its application would have an adverse effect on the Company’s business.
If the Jones Act was to be repealed, substantially amended, or waived and, as a consequence, competitors were to enter the Hawaii or Alaska markets with lower operating costs by utilizing their ability to acquire and operate foreign-flag and foreign-built vessels, the Company’s business would be adversely affected. In addition, the Company’s advantage as a U.S. citizen operator of Jones Act vessels would be eroded if periodic efforts and attempts by foreign interests to circumvent certain aspects of the Jones Act were ever successful. If maritime cabotage services were included in the General Agreement on Trade in Services, the North American Free Trade Agreement, the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement, the U.S.-EU Trade Agreement or other international trade agreements, or if the restrictions contained in the Jones Act were otherwise altered, the shipping of cargo between covered U.S. ports could be opened to foreign-flag or foreign-built vessels or would have other adverse impacts.
The Company’s business would be adversely affected if the Company were determined not to be a U.S. citizen under the Jones Act.
Certain provisions of the Company’s articles of incorporation protect the Company’s ability to maintain its status as a U.S. citizen under the Jones Act. Although the Company is a U.S. citizen under the Jones Act, if non-U.S. citizens were able to defeat such articles of incorporation restrictions and own in the aggregate more than 25 percent of the Company’s common stock, the Company would no longer be considered as a U.S. citizen under the Jones Act. Such an event could result in the Company’s ineligibility to engage in coastwise trade and the imposition of substantial penalties against it, including seizure or forfeiture of its vessels, which would have an adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operation.
Risks Related To Operations
Changes in U.S., global, regional economic conditions or governmental policies that result in a decrease in consumer confidence or market demand for the Company’s services and products in Hawaii and Alaska, the U.S. Mainland, Guam, Asia or the South Pacific may adversely affect the Company’s financial position, results of operations, liquidity, or cash flows.
A weakening of domestic or global economies may adversely impact the level of freight volumes and freight rates. Within the U.S., a weakening of economic drivers in Hawaii and Alaska, which include tourism, military spending, construction starts, personal income growth and employment, or the weakening of consumer confidence, market demand, the economy in the U.S. Mainland, or the effect of a change in the strength of the U.S. dollar against other foreign currencies, may further reduce the demand for goods to and from Asia, Hawaii and Alaska, adversely affecting inland and ocean transportation volumes or rates. In addition, overcapacity in the global or transpacific ocean transportation markets, a change in the cost of goods or currency exchange rates, imposition of tariffs and uncertainty of tariff rates, or a change in international trade policies may adversely affect freight volumes and rates in the Company’s China service.
The Company may face new or increased competition.
The Company may face new competition by established or start-up shipping operators that enter the Company’s markets. The entry of a new competitor or the addition of new vessels or capacity by existing competition on any of the Company’s routes could result in a significant increase in available shipping capacity that could have an adverse effect on our volumes and rates. For example, in December 2016, the Company’s major competitor in the Guam service upgraded its U.S. flagged feeder containership from a bi-weekly service to a weekly service connecting the U.S. West Coast to Guam and Saipan via transshipments over Yokohama, Japan. As a result of this and other potential competitor actions, the Company could experience a reduction in profitability.
The loss of or damage to key customer or agent relationships may adversely affect the Company’s business.
The Company’s businesses are dependent on their relationships with customers and agents, and derive a significant portion of their revenues from the Company’s largest customers. The Company’s business relies on its relationships with the U.S. military, freight forwarders, large retailers and consumer goods and automobile manufacturers, as well as other larger customers. In 2019, the Company’s Ocean Transportation segment’s 10 largest customers accounted for approximately 23 percent of the business’ revenue. In 2019, the Company’s Logistics segment’s 10 largest customers accounted for approximately 21 percent of the business’ revenue.
The Company could also be adversely affected by any changes in the services, or changes to the costs of services, provided by agents. Relationships with railroads and shipping companies and agents are important in the Company’s intermodal business as well as in the Guam, Micronesia, Japan and South Pacific services.
The loss of or damage to any of these key relationships may adversely affect the Company’s business and revenue.
The Company is dependent upon key vendors and third-parties for equipment, capacity and services essential to operate its business, and if the Company fails to secure sufficient third-party services, its business could be adversely affected.
The Company’s businesses are dependent upon key vendors who provide rail, truck and ocean transportation services. If the Company cannot secure sufficient transportation equipment, capacity or services from these third-parties at reasonable prices or rates to meet its or its customers’ needs and schedules, customers may seek to have their transportation and logistics needs met by others on a temporary or permanent basis. If this were to occur, the Company’s business, consolidated results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
An increase in fuel prices, changes in the Company’s ability to collect fuel-related surcharges, and/or the cost or limited availability of required fuels on the U.S. West Coast may adversely affect the Company’s profits.
Fuel is a significant operating expense for the Company’s Ocean Transportation business. The price and supply of fuel are unpredictable and fluctuate based on events beyond the Company’s control. Increases in the price of fuel may adversely affect the Company’s results of operations. Increases in fuel costs also can lead to increases in other expenses such as energy costs and costs to purchase outside transportation services. In the Company’s Ocean Transportation and Logistics services segments, the Company utilizes fuel-related surcharges, although increases in the fuel-related surcharge may adversely affect the Company’s competitive position and may not correspond exactly with the timing of increases in fuel expense. Changes in the Company’s ability to collect fuel-related surcharges also may adversely affect its results of operations.
Effective January 1, 2020, the IMO has imposed a world-wide regulation that generally requires that all ships must burn compliant fuel oil with a maximum sulfur content of ≤0.5 percent. Currently, LSFO is priced significantly higher than HSFO due to the need to refine the oil and the lack of sufficient quantities of LSFO on a global basis. While the Company has entered into contracts to secure LSFO on the U.S. West Coast, there is no guarantee that sufficient quantities will be available at a reasonable cost. In addition, prolonged use of LSFO on some Matson vessels could degrade engine performance or lead to higher maintenance costs. While Matson has announced plans to install scrubbers on additional vessels, there may be delays or other unexpected complications. The Company’s ability to recover the higher costs of IMO 2020 compliant fuel through fuel-related surcharges, the availability of LSFO, and the potential impact on vessel performance and maintenance costs may adversely affect the Company’s operations, business and profit.
Work stoppages or other labor disruptions caused by unionized workers of the Company, other workers or their unions in related industries may adversely affect the Company’s operations.
As of December 31, 2019, Matson and its subsidiaries had 1,988 employees, of which 794 employees were covered by collective bargaining agreements with shoreside unions. In addition, Matson’s fleet of active vessels require 298 billets to operate these vessels. Matson’s vessel management services also employed personnel in 28 billets to manage three vessels. Such employees are also subject to collective bargaining agreements. Furthermore, the Company relies on the services of third-parties including SSAT that employ persons covered by collective bargaining agreements. For
additional information on collective bargaining agreements with unions, see Item1. C. Employees and Labor Relations of Part I above.
The Company could be adversely affected by actions taken by employees of the Company or other companies in related industries against efforts by management of the Company or other companies to control labor costs, restrain wage or benefit increases or modify work practices. Strikes and disruptions may occur as a result of the failure of Matson or other companies in its industry to negotiate collective bargaining agreements with such unions successfully.
In addition, any slow-downs, strikes, lock-outs or other disruptions, including limits to availability of labor through trade union hiring halls could have an adverse impact on Matson’s or SSAT’s operations.
The Company is susceptible to weather, natural disasters and other operating risks.
The Company’s operations are vulnerable to disruption as a result of weather, natural disasters and other climate driven events, such as bad weather at sea, hurricanes, typhoons, tsunamis, floods and earthquakes. Such events will interfere with the Company’s ability to provide on-time scheduled service, resulting in increased expenses and potential loss of business associated with such events. In addition, severe weather and natural disasters can result in interference with the Company’s terminal operations, and may cause serious damage to its vessels and cranes, loss or damage to containers, cargo and other equipment, and loss of life or physical injury to its employees, all of which could have an adverse effect on the Company’s business. These impacts could be particularly acute in certain ports in Alaska where the Company is dependent on a single crane.
The Company’s vessels and their cargoes are also subject to operating risks such as mechanical failure, collisions and human error. The occurrence of any of these events may result in damage to or loss of vessels or other property, or injury or death of people. If any of these events were to occur, the Company could be exposed to reputational harm and liability for resulting damages and possible penalties that, pursuant to typical maritime industry policies, it must pay and then seek reimbursement from its insurer. Affected vessels may also be removed from service and thus would be unavailable for income-generating activity.
The Company maintains casualty and liability insurance policies, which are generally subject to large retentions and deductibles. Some types of losses, such as losses resulting from a port blockage, generally, are not insured. In some cases the Company retains the entire risk of loss because it is not economically prudent to purchase insurance coverage or because of the perceived remoteness of the risk. Other risks are uninsured because insurance coverage may not be commercially available. Finally, the Company retains all risk of loss that exceeds the limits of its insurance.
We face risks related to actual or threatened health epidemics, pandemics or other major health crises, which could significantly disrupt our business.
Our business could be impacted adversely by the effects of public health epidemics, pandemics or other major heath crises (which we refer to collectively as public health crises). Actual or threatened public health crises may have a number of adverse impacts, including volatility in the global economy, impacts to our customers’ business operations, reduced tourism in the markets we serve, or significant disruptions in ocean-borne transportation of goods, logistics demand and supply chain activity, caused by a variety of factors such as quarantines, factory and office closures, port closures, or other government-imposed restrictions, any of which could adversely impact our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
For example, on January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. On January 31, 2020, the U.S. Department of State raised their travel advisory for mainland China from Level 3 (reconsider travel) to Level 4 (do not travel). The outbreak of COVID-19 has harmed the Chinese economy, shut down business operations in China and disrupted manufacturing, travel, drayage of containers, and transportation of goods within and from China. A reduction or delay in container volume from China resulting from decreased manufacturing activity, lower transportation demand or service disruptions from restrictions related to COVID-19 could adversely affect volumes or rates in our CLX service, Matson Logistics’ business related to China, and/or SSAT lift volume at its U.S. West Coast terminals. Our operations in China may also be impacted adversely if our employees’ ability to travel to or within China is restricted or they are otherwise unable to perform their duties. Spread of COVID-19 may reduce tourism to Hawaii, Alaska and/or Guam and thereby lead to reduced demand for
freight that we would otherwise carry. In addition, vessel drydockings and scrubber installations could also be delayed or become more expensive if Chinese shipyards are unable to accommodate demand. The continued spread of COVID-19 or the occurrence of other public health crises may adversely impact our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
The Company’s significant operating agreements and leases could be replaced on less favorable terms or may not be replaced when they expire.
The significant operating agreements and leases of the Company in its various businesses expire at various points in the future and may not be replaced or could be replaced on less favorable terms, thereby adversely affecting the Company’s future financial position, results of operations and cash flows. For example, on November 26, 2018, a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company entered into agreements whereby Maunalei, a U.S. flagged and Jones Act qualified vessel, was sold for $106.0 million and leased back from the buyer under an operating lease agreement. While the agreements contain customary representations, warranties and covenants, there remain risks that (a) the lessor could lose its Jones Act status, (b) that the Company could not replace Maunalei in the event it is no longer Jones Act eligible, or (c) if the repurchase option is elected, that the Company would not be able to consummate the repurchase of Maunalei at the end of the lease term.
The Company may face unexpected dry-docking or repair costs for its vessels.
We routinely engage shipyards to dry-dock our vessels for regulatory compliance and to provide repair and maintenance. Vessels may also have to be dry-docked or repaired at sea in the event of accidents or other unforeseen damage. We also operate a number of older active and reserve vessels that may require more frequent and extensive maintenance. The cost of repairs are difficult to predict with certainty and can be substantial. Large dry-docking and other repair expenses could adversely affect the Company’s results of operations and cash flows. In addition, the time when a vessel is out of service for maintenance is determined by a number of factors, including regulatory deadlines, market conditions, shipyard availability and customer requirements, and accordingly, the length of time that a vessel may be out of service may be longer than anticipated, which could adversely affect the Company’s business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
If we are not able to use our information technology and communications systems effectively, our ability to conduct business might be negatively impacted.
The Company is highly dependent on the proper functioning of our information technology systems to enable operations and compete effectively. We regularly update our information technology systems or implement new systems which could cause substantial business interruption. There is no assurance that the systems upgrades or new systems will meet our current or future business needs, or that they will operate as designed. Our information technology systems also rely on third-party service providers for access to the Internet, satellite-based communications systems, the electric grid, database storage facilities and telecommunications providers. We have no control over the operations of these third-party service providers. If our information technology and communications systems experience reliability issues, integration or compatibility concerns or if our third-party providers are unable to perform effectively or experience disruptions or failures, there could be an adverse impact on the availability and functioning of our information technology and communications systems, which could lead to business disruption or inefficiencies, reputational harm or loss of customers that could have an adverse effect on our business.
Our information technology systems have in the past and may in the future be exposed to cybersecurity risks and other disruptions that could impair the Company’s ability to operate and adversely affect its business.
The Company relies extensively on its information technology systems and third-party service providers including cloud services for accounting, billing, disbursement, cargo booking and tracking, vessel scheduling and stowage, equipment tracking, customer service, banking, payroll and employee communication systems. The Company also collects, stores and transmits sensitive data, including its proprietary business information and that of its customers, and personally identifiable information of its customers and employees. Despite our continuous efforts to make investments in our information technology systems and system-wide data security program, the implementation of security measures to protect our data and infrastructure against breaches and other cyber threats, and our use of internal processes and controls designed to protect the security and availability of our systems, we have in the past experienced and may in the
future experience cybersecurity risks such as computer viruses, hacking, malware, denial of service attacks, cyber terrorism, circumvention of security systems, malfeasance, breaches due to employee error, natural disasters, telecommunications failure, or other catastrophic events at the Company’s facilities, aboard its vessels or at third-party locations.
Any failure, breach or unauthorized access to the Company’s or third-party systems could result in the loss of confidential, sensitive or proprietary information, interruptions in its service or production or otherwise impact our ability to conduct business operations, and could result in potential reductions in revenue and profits, damage to its reputation or liability.
Loss of the Company’s key personnel could adversely affect its business.
The Company’s future success will depend, in significant part, upon the continued services of its key personnel, including its senior management and skilled employees. The loss of the services of key personnel could adversely affect the Company’s future operating results because of such employees’ experience and knowledge of the Company’s business and customer relationships. If key employees depart, the Company may incur significant costs to replace them. Additionally, the Company’s ability to execute its business model could be impaired if it cannot replace them in a timely manner. The Company does not maintain key person insurance on any of its key personnel.
The Company is involved in a joint venture and is subject to risks associated with joint venture relationships.
The Company is involved in a terminal joint venture, SSAT (and through SSAT, other joint ventures at U.S. West Coast terminals), and may initiate future joint venture projects. A joint venture involves certain risks such as:
|●||The Company may not have voting control over the joint venture;|
|●||The Company may not be able to maintain good relationships with its joint venture partner;|
|●||A joint venture partner at any time may have economic or business interests that are inconsistent with the Company’s;|
|●||A joint venture partner may fail to fund its share of capital for operations or to fulfill its other commitments, including providing accurate and timely accounting and financial information to the Company;|
|●||The joint venture may experience operating difficulties and financial losses, which may lead to asset write-downs or impairment charges that could negatively impact the operating results of the joint venture and the Company;|
|●||The joint venture or venture partner could lose key personnel;|
|●||A joint venture partner could become bankrupt requiring the Company to assume all risks and capital requirements related to the joint venture project, and the related bankruptcy proceedings could have an adverse impact on the operation of the partnership or joint venture; and|
|●||Actions of the joint venture may result in reputational harm to the Company.|
In addition, the Company relies on SSAT for its stevedoring services at the ports of Long Beach and Oakland, California, and Seattle and Tacoma, Washington on the U.S. West Coast. The Company could be adversely affected by any changes in the services provided, or to the costs of such services provided by SSAT.
The Company is subject to risks associated with conducting business in foreign shipping markets.
Matson’s China, Micronesia, Japan and South Pacific services are subject to risks associated with conducting business in a foreign shipping market, which include:
|●||Challenges associated with operating in foreign countries and doing business and developing relationships with foreign companies;|
|●||Challenges in working with and maintaining good relationships with business associates in our foreign operations;|
|●||Difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations;|
|●||Our ability to be in compliance with U.S. and foreign legal and regulatory restrictions, including compliance with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and foreign laws that prohibit corrupt payments to government officials;|
|●||Global vessel overcapacity that may lead to decreases in volumes and shipping rates;|
|●||Not having continued access to existing port facilities;|
|●||Competition with established and new carriers;|
|●||Changes in vessel deployment by competitors that impact the Company’s services;|
|●||Currency exchange rate fluctuations and our ability to manage these fluctuations;|
|●||Political and economic instability;|
|●||Dynamics involving U.S. trade relations with other countries, including measures such as the imposition of tariffs at varying levels or other governmental actions, all of which may affect the Company’s operations; and|
|●||Challenges caused by cultural differences.|
Any of these risks has the potential to adversely affect the Company’s operating results.
The Company is subject to risks related to an accident or spill event.
The Company’s vessel and terminal operations could be faced with a maritime accident, oil or other spill, or other environmental mishap. Such event may lead to personal injury, loss of life, damage of property, pollution and suspension of operations. As a result, such event could have an adverse effect on the Company’s business.
The Company’s Shipbuilding Agreement with NASSCO is subject to risks.
On August 25, 2016, MatNav and NASSCO entered into a definitive agreement pursuant to which NASSCO will construct two new 3,500-TEU sized Kanaloa Class dual-fuel capable container and roll-on/roll-off vessels. The first vessel, Lurline, was delivered on December 26, 2019. The second vessel, Matsonia, is expected to be delivered in the fourth quarter of 2020. Failure of any party to the shipbuilding agreement to fulfill its obligations under the agreement could have an adverse effect on the Company’s financial position and results of operations. Such a failure could happen for a variety of reasons, including but not limited to (i) delivery delays, (ii) delivery of vessels that fail to meet any of the required operating specifications (for example, capacity, fuel efficiency or speed), (iii) events which prevent one or more significant subcontractors from performing, or (iv) the refusal or inability of NASSCO or any of its subcontractors to perform for any reason.
The Company’s terminals in Hawaii and Alaska require modernization.
We are investing approximately $60 million, including the installation of three new gantry cranes and upgrade of three existing cranes, as part of the first phase of a broader project to expand and improve the Company’s Sand Island terminal in Honolulu Harbor. We have also begun discussions with state and local authorities in Anchorage, Alaska regarding upgrades to those terminal and port facilities. Regulatory, construction or other delays or cost overruns related to the expansion and modernization of the terminals could have an adverse impact on our business plans, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, the terminal modernization programs may not result in improved operational productivity or generate expected returns.
Heightened security measures, war, actual or threatened terrorist attacks, efforts to combat terrorism and other acts of violence may adversely impact the Company’s operations and profitability.
War, terrorist attacks and other acts of violence may cause consumer confidence and spending to decrease, or may affect the ability or willingness of tourists to travel to Hawaii, Guam or Alaska, thereby adversely affecting those economies and the Company. Additionally, future terrorist attacks could increase volatility in the U.S. and worldwide financial markets. Acts of war or terrorism may be directed at the Company’s shipping operations, or may cause the U.S. government to take control of Matson’s vessels for military operation. Heightened security measures potentially slow the movement and increase the cost of freight through U.S. or foreign ports, across borders or on U.S. or foreign railroads or highways and could adversely affect the Company’s business and results of operations.
Acquisitions may have an adverse effect on the Company’s business.
The Company’s growth strategy includes expansion through acquisitions, including, for example, the Company’s acquisitions of Horizon Lines, Inc. (“Horizon”) in 2015 and Span Alaska in 2016. Acquisitions may result in difficulties in assimilating acquired assets or companies, and may result in the diversion of the Company’s capital and its management attention from other business issues and opportunities. The Company may not be able to integrate companies that it acquires successfully, including their personnel, financial systems, distribution, operations and general
operating procedures. The Company may also encounter challenges in achieving appropriate internal control over financial reporting in connection with the integration of an acquired company. The Company may pay a premium for an acquisition, resulting in goodwill that may later be determined to be impaired, adversely affecting the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.
The Horizon and Span Alaska acquisitions may expose us to unknown liabilities.
We acquired Horizon subject to all of the liabilities and obligations of its non-Hawaii business, including any remaining liabilities and obligations associated with its Puerto Rico operations, which Horizon ceased during the first quarter of 2015. Similarly, in August 2016, we acquired Span Alaska subject to all of its liabilities and obligations. The disposition of these liabilities, and any other obligations that are unknown to the Company, including contingent liabilities, could have an adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.
We may continue to be exposed to risks and liabilities related to Horizon’s former Hawaii business.
Pasha acquired Horizon’s former Hawaii business immediately before we acquired Horizon, and Pasha assumed substantially all liabilities and obligations related to Horizon’s Hawaii business and agreed to perform various covenants. In some cases, however, Horizon, as the original contracting party, may remain primarily responsible for such assumed Hawaii liabilities and obligations. The Company may incur losses related to such assumed Hawaii liabilities and obligations.
We may be required to record a significant charge to earnings if recorded intangible assets associated with the Horizon and Span Alaska acquisitions become impaired.
We recorded significant intangible assets related to goodwill, customer relationships and trade name arising from the Horizon and Span Alaska acquisitions. We are required to test goodwill for impairment annually, or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. Factors that could lead to an impairment of goodwill or intangible customer relationships include any significant adverse changes affecting the reporting unit’s financial condition, results of operations, and future cash flows.
Risks Related to Financial Matters
A deterioration of the Company’s credit profile, disruptions of the credit markets or higher interest rates could restrict its ability to access the debt capital markets or increase the cost of debt.
Deterioration in the Company’s credit profile may have an adverse effect on the Company’s ability to access the private or public debt markets and also may increase its borrowing costs. If the Company’s credit profile deteriorates significantly, its access to the debt capital markets or its ability to renew its committed lines of credit may become restricted, or the Company may not be able to refinance debt at the same levels or on the same terms. Because the Company relies on its ability to draw on its revolving credit facilities to support its operations when required, any volatility in the credit and financial markets that prevents the Company from accessing funds (for example, a lender that does not fulfill its lending obligation) could have an adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and cash flows. Additionally, the Company’s credit agreements generally include an increase in borrowing rates if the Company’s credit profile deteriorates. Furthermore, the Company incurs interest under its revolving credit facilities based on floating rates. Floating rate debt creates higher debt service requirements if market interest rates increase, as was the case in connection with the U.S. Federal Reserve’s interest rate increases in 2018, which would adversely affect the Company’s cash flow and results of operations. In addition, as the floating rate on certain borrowings under our revolving credit facility is tied to LIBOR, the uncertainty regarding the future of LIBOR as well as the transition from LIBOR to an alternate benchmark rate or rates could pose funding risks for the Company and adversely affect the Company’s financing costs.
Failure to comply with certain restrictive financial covenants contained in the Company’s credit facilities could preclude the payment of dividends, impose restrictions on the Company’s business segments, capital resources or other activities or otherwise adversely affect the Company.
The Company’s credit facilities contain certain restrictive financial covenants, the most restrictive of which include a maximum ratio of debt to earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”), a minimum ratio of EBITDA to interest expense, the maintenance of no more than a maximum amount of priority debt as a percentage of consolidated tangible assets, and the maintenance of minimum shareholders’ equity. If the Company does not maintain these and other required covenants, and a breach of such covenants is not cured timely or waived by the lenders resulting in a default, the Company’s access to credit may be limited or terminated, dividends may be suspended, and the lenders could declare any outstanding amounts due and payable. The Company’s continued ability to borrow under its credit facilities is subject to compliance with these financial and other non-financial covenants.
The Company’s effective income tax rate may vary.
Various internal and external factors may have favorable or unfavorable material or immaterial effects on the Company’s effective income tax rate and, therefore, impact the Company’s net income and earnings per share. These factors include, but are not limited to changes in tax rates; changes in tax laws, regulations, and rulings; changes in interpretations of existing tax laws, regulations and rulings; changes in the evaluation of the Company’s ability to realize deferred tax assets, and changes in uncertain tax positions; changes in accounting principles; changes in current pre-tax income as well as changes in forecasted pre-tax income; changes in the level of Capital Construction Fund (“CCF”) deductions, non-deductible expenses, and expenses eligible for tax credits; changes in the mix of earnings among countries with varying tax rates; and acquisitions and changes in the Company’s corporate structure. These factors may result in periodic revisions to our effective income tax rate, which could affect the Company’s cash flow and results of operations.
Changes in the value of pension assets, or a change in pension law or key assumptions, may adversely affect the Company’s financial performance.
The amount of the Company’s employee pension and post-retirement benefit costs and obligations is calculated on assumptions used in the relevant actuarial calculations. Adverse changes in any of these assumptions due to economic or other factors, changes in discount rates, higher health care costs, or lower actual or expected returns on plan assets, may adversely affect the Company’s operating results, cash flows, and financial condition. In addition, a change in federal law, including changes to the Employee Retirement Income Security Act or Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation premiums, may adversely affect the Company’s single-employer and multi-employer pension plans and plan funding. These factors, as well as a decline in the fair value of pension plan assets, may put upward pressure on the cost of providing pension and medical benefits and may increase future pension expense and required funding contributions. There can be no assurance that the Company will be successful in limiting future cost and expense increases, and continued upward pressure in costs and expenses could further reduce the profitability of the Company’s businesses.
The Company may have exposure under its multi-employer pension and post-retirement plans in which it participates that extends beyond its funding obligation with respect to the Company’s employees.
The Company contributes to various multi-employer pension plans. In the event of a partial or complete withdrawal by the Company from any plan that is underfunded, the Company would be liable for a proportionate share of such plan’s unfunded vested benefits (see Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II below). Based on the limited information available from plan administrators, which the Company cannot independently validate, the Company believes that its portion of the contingent liability in the case of a full withdrawal or termination may be material to its financial position and results of operations. If any other contributing employer withdraws from any plan that is underfunded, and such employer (or any member of its controlled group) cannot satisfy its obligations under the plan at the time of withdrawal, then the Company, along with the other remaining contributing employers, would be liable for its proportionate share of such plan’s unfunded vested benefits. In addition, if a multi-employer plan fails to satisfy the minimum funding requirements, the Internal Revenue Service will impose certain penalties and taxes.
Risks Related to Legal and Legislative Matters
Compliance with safety and environmental protection and other governmental requirements may adversely affect our operations.
The shipping industry in general, our business and the operation of our vessels and terminals in particular are affected by extensive and changing safety, environmental protection and other international, national, State and local governmental laws and regulations, including the following: laws pertaining to air emissions; wastewater discharges; the transportation, handling and disposal of solid and hazardous materials, oil and oil-related products, hazardous substances and wastes; the investigation and remediation of contamination; and health, safety and the protection of the environment and natural resources. For example, our U.S. flagged vessels generally must be maintained “in class” and are subject to periodic inspections by the American Bureau of Shipping or similar classification societies, and must be periodically inspected by, or on behalf of, the United States Coast Guard. We are subject to IMO regulations, including the new IMO 2020 regulations limiting the sulfur content of fuel oil. Federal environmental laws and certain State laws also require us, as a vessel operator, to comply with numerous environmental regulations and to obtain certificates of financial responsibility and to adopt procedures for oil and hazardous substance spill prevention, response and clean up.
In complying with these laws, we have incurred expenses and may incur future expenses for vessel modifications, changes in operating procedures and undergoing additional oversight inspections. Changes in enforcement policies for existing requirements and additional laws and regulations adopted in the future could limit our ability to do business or further increase the cost of our doing business. Our vessels’ operating certificates and licenses are renewed periodically during the required annual surveys of the vessels. However, there can be no assurance that such certificates and licenses will be renewed, even though Matson maintains extensive programs and policies to ensure such renewal. Also, in the future, we may have to alter existing equipment, add new equipment, or change operating procedures for our vessels to comply with changes in governmental regulations, safety or other equipment standards to meet our customers’ changing needs. If any such costs are material, they could adversely affect our financial condition.
We are subject to regulation and liability under environmental laws that could result in substantial fines and penalties that may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
The U.S. Act to Prevent Pollution from vessels, which implements the International Maritime Pollution (MARPOL) treaty, and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, among many other laws, treaties and regulations, provides for severe civil and criminal penalties related to vessel-generated pollution for incidents in U.S. waters within three nautical miles and in some cases within the 200-mile exclusive economic zone. The EPA requires vessels to obtain coverage under a general permit and to comply with inspection, monitoring, discharge, recordkeeping and reporting requirements. Matson’s vessels operate within emission control areas. If our vessels are not operated in accordance with these requirements, including waivers, permits or recordkeeping and other reporting requirements, such violations could result in substantial fines or penalties that could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and our business.
The Company is subject to, and may in the future be subject to disputes, legal or other proceedings, and government inquiries or investigations that could have an adverse effect on the Company.
The nature of the Company’s business exposes it to the potential for disputes, legal or other proceedings, and government inquiries or investigations relating to antitrust matters, labor and employment matters, personal injury and property damage, environmental and other matters, as discussed in the other risk factors disclosed in this section or in other Company filings with the SEC. For example, Matson is a common carrier, whose tariffs, rates, rules and practices in dealing with its customers are governed by extensive and complex foreign, federal, state and local regulations, which may be the subject of disputes or administrative or judicial proceedings. If these disputes develop into proceedings, these proceedings, individually or collectively, could involve or result in significant expenditures or losses by the Company, or result in significant changes to Matson’s tariffs, rates, rules and practices in dealing with its customers, all of which could have an adverse effect on the Company’s future operating results, including profitability, cash flows and financial condition.
Non-compliance with, or changes to, federal, state or local law or regulations, including passage of climate change legislation or regulation, may adversely affect the Company’s business.
The Company is subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations, including cabotage laws, government rate regulations, and environmental regulations including those relating to air quality initiatives at port locations, including but not limited to, the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation & Liability Act of 1980, the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, the Clean Water Act, the Invasive Species Act and the Clean Air Act. Continued compliance with these laws and regulations may result in additional costs and changes in operating procedures that may adversely affect the Company’s business. Non-compliance with, or changes to, the laws and regulations governing the Company’s business could impose significant additional costs on the Company and adversely affect the Company’s financial condition and results of operations. In addition, changes in environmental laws impacting the business, including passage of climate change legislation or other regulatory initiatives that restrict emissions of greenhouse gasses such as a “cap and trade” system of allowances and credits, if enacted, may require costly vessel modifications, the use of higher-priced fuel and changes in operating practices that may not be recoverable through increased payments from customers. Further changes to these laws and regulations could adversely affect the Company.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
Matson leases terminal facilities including office and storage space at the following material locations:
Description of Facility
Dutch Harbor, Alaska
Polaris Point, Guam
The Company is currently renewing certain terminal leases which expire during 2020. The Company expects to be able to renew these leases as they expire on similar terms to those that currently exist within these lease agreements. The Company’s other primary terminal facilities located at the ports of Oakland and Long Beach, California, and the ports of Seattle and Tacoma, Washington are leased by SSAT.
Other material facilities used in the Company’s operations include the following:
Other Material Facilities
Description of Facility
Office / Cross-dock
Office / Cross-dock
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
Environmental Matters: The Company’s Ocean Transportation segment has certain risks that could result in expenditures for environmental remediation. The Company believes that based on all information available to it, the Company is currently in compliance, in all material respects, with applicable environmental laws and regulations.
Other Matters: The Company and its subsidiaries are parties to, or may be contingently liable in connection with, other legal actions arising in the normal course of their businesses, the outcomes of which, in the opinion of management after consultation with counsel, would not have a material effect on the Company’s financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
General Information: Matson’s common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol “MATX”. As of February 24, 2020, there were 2,156 shareholders of record of Matson common stock.
Stockholder Return Performance Graph and Trading Information: The following information in this Item 5 shall not be deemed filed for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, nor shall it be deemed incorporated by reference in any filing under the Securities Act of 1933.
The cumulative total return listed below assumed an initial investment of $100 and reinvestment of dividends at each fiscal end and measures the performance of this investment as of the last trading day in the month of December for each of the five years ended December 31, 2019. The graph is a historical representation of past performance only and is not necessarily indicative of future performance.
$100 invested on December 31, 2014 in stock or index, including reinvestment of dividends.
Trading volume averaged 155,804 shares a day in 2019, compared with 232,289 shares a day in 2018 and 241,338 shares a day in 2017, as reported by the New York Stock Exchange.
Dividends: Dividends declared per share of common stock by the Company for each fiscal quarter during 2018 and 2019 were as follows:
Matson’s Board of Directors also declared a cash dividend of $0.22 per share for the first quarter 2020, payable on March 5, 2020 to shareholders of record on February 6, 2020. Although Matson expects to continue paying quarterly cash dividends on its common stock, the declaration and payment of dividends are subject to the discretion of the Board of Directors and will depend upon Matson’s financial condition, results of operations, cash requirements and other factors deemed relevant by the Board of Directors.
Equity Compensation Plan Information: The following table sets forth, as of December 31, 2019, certain information regarding Matson’s equity compensation plan:
Number of shares
Number of shares
remaining available for
to be issued
future issuance under
upon exercise of
exercise price of
plans (excluding shares
warrants and rights
warrants and rights
reflected in column (a))
Equity compensation plans approved by shareholders
Equity compensation plans not approved by shareholders
|(1)||In addition to 173,128 shares subject to outstanding stock option awards, this also includes 417,693 shares subject to unvested restricted stock unit awards and 360,043 shares subject to unvested Performance Share awards.|
|(2)||As restricted stock unit and Performance Share awards do not have exercise prices, the weighted average exercise price is computed using only outstanding stock option awards.|
|(3)||These shares are available for issuance under the Company’s 2016 Incentive Compensation Plan.|
ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The comparative selected financial data of the Company is presented for each of the five years in the period ended December 31, 2019. The information should be read in conjunction with Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” and Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”. All fiscal years include 52 weeks, except for the year ended December 31, 2016 which includes 53 weeks:
(In millions, except per share amounts)
Operating Revenue: (1)
Total Operating Revenue
Operating and Net Income: (1)
Ocean Transportation (2)
Total Operating Income
Other income (expense), net
Income before Income Taxes
Income taxes (3)
Identifiable Assets: (1)(6)
Ocean Transportation (4)
Capital Expenditure: (5)
Total Capital Expenditures
Depreciation and Amortization:
Deferred Dry-docking Amortization — Ocean Transportation
Total Depreciation and Amortization
Earnings Per Share in Net Income:
Cash dividends per share declared
As of December 31:
Total debt obligations — including current portion
Total Shareholders' equity
|(1)||2015 and subsequent selected financial data includes the operations of Horizon acquired as of May 29, 2015, and Span Alaska acquired as of August 4, 2016.|
|(2)||The Ocean Transportation segment includes $20.8 million, $36.8 million, $28.2 million, $15.8 million and $16.5 million of equity in income from the Company’s investment in SSAT, for 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively.|
|(3)||Income taxes for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017 include a non-cash income tax (expense)/benefit of $2.9 million, $(2.9) million and $154.0 million, respectively, related to the remeasurement of the Company’s deferred assets and liabilities and other discrete adjustments as a result of applying the Tax Cut and Jobs Act of 2017.|
|(4)||The Ocean Transportation segment includes $76.2 million, $87.0 million, $93.2 million, $82.4 million and $66.4 million related to the Company’s investment in SSAT as of December 31, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively.|
|(5)||Excludes expenditures related to Matson’s acquisition of Horizon and Span Alaska which were classified as payments for acquisitions in Cash Flows used in Investing Activities within the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.|
|(6)||Identifiable assets for 2019 includes Operating lease right of use assets resulting from the adoption of the new lease accounting standard.|
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS AND RISK FACTORS
The Company, from time to time, may make or may have made certain forward-looking statements, whether orally or in writing, such as forecasts and projections of the Company’s future performance or statements of management’s plans and objectives. These statements are “forward-looking” statements as that term is defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Such forward-looking statements may be contained in, among other things, SEC filings such as Forms 10-K, 10-Q and 8-K, the Annual Report to Shareholders, press releases made by the Company, the Company’s Internet websites (including websites of its subsidiaries), and oral statements made by the officers of the Company. Except for historical information contained in these written or oral communications, such communications contain forward-looking statements. These include, for example, all references to 2020 or future years. New risk factors emerge from time to time and it is not possible for the Company to predict all such risk factors, nor can it assess the impact of all such risk factors on the Company’s business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. Accordingly, forward-looking statements cannot be relied upon as a guarantee of future results and involve a number of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected in the statements, including but not limited to the factors that are described in Part I, Item 1A under the caption of “Risk Factors” of this Form 10-K, which section is incorporated herein by reference. The Company is not required, and undertakes no obligation, to revise or update forward-looking statements or any factors that may affect actual results, whether as a result of new information, future events, or circumstances occurring after the date of this report.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) is designed to provide a discussion of the Company’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and certain other factors that may affect its future results from the perspective of management. The discussion that follows is intended to provide information that will assist in understanding the changes in the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements from year to year, the primary factors that accounted for those changes, and how certain accounting principles, policies and estimates affect the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements. MD&A is provided as a supplement to, and should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and the accompanying notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II below. Discussion and analysis of the financial condition and results of operations of Matson for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 can be found in Part II, Item 7 of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on March 4, 2019.
MD&A is presented in the following sections:
|◾||Consolidated Results of Operations|
|◾||Analysis of Operating Revenue and Income by Segment|
|◾||Liquidity and Capital Resources|
|◾||Contractual Obligations, Commitments, Contingencies and Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements|
|◾||Critical Accounting Estimates|
The following is the Company’s fourth quarter 2019 discussion and 2020 outlook:
Ocean Transportation: The Company’s container volume in the Hawaii service in the fourth quarter 2019 was 1.1 percent higher year-over-year primarily due to positive container market growth. Although Hawaii’s rate of economic growth is expected to continue slowing, recent increases in key economic factors, such as construction activity and visitor traffic, are expected to support continued GDP growth. The Company expects volume in 2020 to be higher compared to the level achieved in 2019, reflecting favorable economic conditions in Hawaii and stable market share.
In China, the Company’s container volume in the fourth quarter 2019 was 4.3 percent higher year-over-year primarily due to larger vessel capacity deployed in the tradelane coupled with strong demand for Matson’s differentiated service. Matson continued to realize a sizeable rate premium in the fourth quarter 2019 and achieved average freight rates that were modestly lower than the exceptional level achieved in the fourth quarter 2018. In the fourth quarter of 2018, the Company experienced unusually strong performance as a result of the U.S.-China trade situation. For 2020, the Company expects to face challenging conditions in the first half of the year as a result of COVID-19, but expects the second half of the year to be comparable to the strong performance achieved in the second half of 2019. Therefore, the Company expects volume in 2020 to be modestly lower than the prior year and average freight rates in 2020 to approximate the levels achieved in 2019.
In Guam, the Company’s container volume in the fourth quarter 2019 was 7.7 percent lower on a year-over-year basis primarily due to typhoon relief volume in the year ago period. For 2020, the Company expects volume to approximate the level achieved last year and expects the highly competitive environment to remain.
In Alaska, the Company’s container volume for the fourth quarter 2019 declined 0.7 percent year-over-year. The Company experienced slightly lower northbound volume and modestly higher southbound volume compared to the levels achieved in fourth quarter 2018. For 2020, the Company expects volume to be modestly higher than the level achieved in 2019, with higher northbound volume, including volume in the first quarter related to the dry-docking of a competitor’s vessel, and slightly lower southbound volume compared to the levels achieved in 2019.
The contribution in the fourth quarter 2019 from the Company’s SSAT joint venture investment was $5.0 million lower than the fourth quarter 2018. The decrease was primarily due to higher terminal operating costs and lower lift volume. For 2020, the Company expects the contribution from SSAT to be lower due to lower lift volume primarily driven by the negative effects of COVID-19, partially offset by improved operating cost efficiencies.
As a result of the business outlook noted above, the Company expects full year 2020 Ocean Transportation operating income to be higher than the $90.8 million achieved in 2019. In the first quarter 2020, the Company expects Ocean Transportation operating income to be approximately breakeven versus the $9.4 million achieved in the year ago period. The vast majority of the estimated $15 million COVID-19 financial impact is factored into the Ocean Transportation operating income outlook for the first quarter 2020.
Logistics: In the fourth quarter 2019, operating income for the Company’s Logistics segment was $1.5 million lower compared to the operating income achieved in the fourth quarter 2018. For 2020, the Company expects Logistics operating income to be lower than the level achieved in 2019 of $38.3 million. In the first quarter 2020, the Company expects Logistics operating income to be lower than the $8.1 million achieved in the first quarter 2019. The full year 2020 and first quarter 2020 operating income outlook includes a modest negative financial impact from COVID-19.
Depreciation and Amortization: For the full year 2020, the Company expects depreciation and amortization expense to be approximately $135 million, inclusive of dry-docking amortization of approximately $25 million.
Other Income (Expense): The Company expects full year 2020 other income (expense) to be approximately $2 million in income, which is attributable to other component costs related to the Company’s pension and post-retirement plans.
Interest Expense: The Company expects interest expense for the full year 2020 to be approximately $33 million.
Income Taxes: In the fourth quarter 2019, the Company’s effective tax rate was 22.4 percent. For the full year 2020, the Company expects its effective tax rate to be approximately 26.0 percent.
Net Income, Operating Income and EBITDA: The Company expects net income in 2020 to be flat year-over-year and expects consolidated operating income and EBITDA in 2020 to be approximately $143 million and $280 million, respectively, including approximately $15 million negative impact from COVID-19.
Capital and Vessel Dry-docking Expenditures: For the full year 2019, the Company made other capital expenditure payments of $91.2 million, capitalized vessel construction expenditures of $219.1 million, and dry-docking payments of $25.9 million. For the full year 2020, the Company expects to make other capital expenditure payments, including maintenance capital expenditures, of approximately $110 million, vessel construction expenditures (including capitalized interest and owner’s items) of approximately $75 million, and dry-docking payments of approximately $15 million.
CONSOLIDATED RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following analysis of the financial condition and results of operations of Matson for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II below.
Consolidated Results: 2019 compared with 2018:
Years Ended December 31,
(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)
Operating costs and expenses
Other income (expense), net
Income before income taxes
Basic earnings per share
Diluted earnings per share
Fiscal Year: Fiscal years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 include 52 weeks.
Consolidated Operating Revenue for the year ended December 31, 2019 decreased $19.7 million, or 0.9 percent, compared to the prior year. The decrease was due to an increase in Ocean Transportation revenue of $25.3 million offset by a decrease in Logistics revenue of $45.0 million.
Operating Costs and Expenses for the year ended December 31, 2019 increased $15.0 million, or 0.7 percent, compared to the prior year. The increase was due to an increase in Ocean Transportation operating costs and expenses of $65.6 million which was partially offset by a decrease in Logistics operating costs and expenses of $50.6 million.
Operating Income for the year ended December 31, 2019 decreased $34.7 million, or 21.2 percent, compared to the prior year. The decrease was due to a decrease in Ocean Transportation operating income of $40.3 million which was partially offset by an increase in Logistics operating income of $5.6 million.
The reasons for changes in operating revenue, operating costs and expenses, and operating income are described below, by business segment, in the Analysis of Operating Revenue and Income by Segment.
Interest Expense was $22.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, compared to $18.7 million in the prior year. The increase in interest expense was due to higher interest on increased borrowings under the revolving credit facility and a lower offset amount of capitalized interest associated with the new vessel construction.
Other Income (Expense), net was $1.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, compared to $2.6 million in the prior year, and relates to the amortization of certain components of net periodic benefit costs or gains related to the Company’s pension and post-retirement plans.
Income Taxes for the year ended December 31, 2019 was $25.1 million, or 23.3 percent of income before income taxes, compared to $38.7 million, or 26.2 percent of income before income taxes in the prior year. The 2019 income tax rate is lower than the 2018 income tax rate primarily due to $2.9 million, or 2.7 percent of non-cash benefit included in income tax expense in 2019, compared to a $2.9 million, or 2.0 percent of non-cash expense included in income tax expense in 2018 related to discrete tax adjustments resulting from applying the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “Tax Act”).
Net Income during the year ended December 31, 2019 decreased $26.3 million, or 24.1 percent, compared to the prior year.
ANALYSIS OF OPERATING REVENUE AND INCOME BY SEGMENT
The following analysis of operating revenue and income by segment for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 should be read in conjunction with the Company’s reportable segments information included in Item 6 of Part II and Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II.
Ocean Transportation: 2019 compared with 2018: